|Rex Offa of Albien (Britain)|
|Written by Abdun Nur|
"Man was born free, and everywhere he is in irons”
Before 1066 the lands were named:
Britanniae (United Kingdom, all 4 regions)
Albien (England, Wales and Scotland )
Iernē (Eirē - Ireland).
Albion (Albidia - Whitish) (Latin - meaning White)
Albien (Gallo-Brittonic (Brythonic): British from albiyo – meaning surface world)
Alba (Gaelic : Scottish – meaning Hilly land)
Albbu (Middle Irish / Middle Welsh (Elfydd): meaning the habitable surface of the Earth)
The people of Albien would be denoted as the Albic or Albannach (now synonymous with Scotsman) communities.
This clearly means the tribes living on the Britannic isles viewed the place simply as the surface of the earth, no distinction of region, no control of sovereign boundaries, which is in line with the allodial rights of use structure of land use.
By the 1st century AD, the name Albien refers unequivocally to modern Great Britain. The Pseudo-Aristotelian text De mundo has:
"The largest islands they reached were two, called the Britannic [isles], Albion and Iernē.”
Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 - 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, likewise has:
"It was itself named Albion, while all the islands about which we shall soon briefly speak were called the Britanniae.”
The arrival of the Germanic Tribes.
What we are taught about the histories of the United Kingdom, as it is now known, through the Roman Catholic version of events, being half truths at best; history created as both propaganda, and corruptions, for an engineered conformity of the population, in support of the sovereign and corporate models. If the facts are examined without the confluence of agendas, to a predetermined conclusion, the story of the histories of the United Kingdom takes on a different complexion.
(After the conquest a policy of disinformation and propaganda began with the forging or outright fabrication of documents and histories, the systematic destruction of evidence and authentic documentation that conflicted with the lies of the church. In the 13th century the concept of perfidious Albion meaning: guilty, treacherous, faithless or deceitful; was used to establish the view of Albion (Albien) as a faithless place before it became England with the conclusion of the Roman Catholic subjugation, as the history paints a picture written by the victors.)
The Angles and the Saxons began to invade the southern counties of Britain, starting around 449AD, the Angles came from Schleswig-Holstein (the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein) the northern most of the sixteen states of Germany, while the Saxons were a confederation of old Germanic tribes.
The main documents to explain the history before 1066 are the Anglo-saxon chronicles, these are not accurate and were written by Roman Catholics as a narrative of their doctrine of events, so laying a foundation of historical support for themselves in many aspects, this is clear from the fact it is written in hindsight with reference to events that all would have been oblivious to in relation to the year the chronicle explains. The birth of Christ would have no reference in a Germanic chronicle, nor would any other obscure middle eastern events at the time, they were added afterwards, this makes the Chronicles just a narrative, not an accurate sequence of events. If we examine aspects of the Chronicle we can get the feel for the Roman Catholic perspective, this accounts for the predominant references to Christianity, and the description of events based upon the perspective of religion, righteous subjugation, sovereign based thoughts and the perception that the actions of murders, thieves, rapists and betrayers are Kingly, they also use the Chronicle to establish a false lineage to Rex Offa, a name that he gave himself at some point in his life, the ancestry of Offa is a mystery lost, or expunged over the centuries, Roman Catholics connect him falsely to the Anglo-Saxon immigrants, in a bid to support the idea of their authority, the entire purpose of the Chronicle is to achieve this goal, they want the Christian practice of sovereign ownership of the land to be perceived as always being the case, while clearly allodial ownership dominated all but the Anglo-Saxon subjugated regions.
From the Anglo-saxon chronicles it is clear from the outset the A-S immigrants murdered and plundered and stole the land of southern Albien, the details from their own account proves the death cult of these immigrant upon the indigenous peoples. Much like the history of the Americas, were the 100 million native inhabitants were exterminated, and have no baring on the Christian death cults interpretations of history.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles paint a picture of theft and murder:
It begins around 449 “...In their days Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, Rex (a rex was not a king) of the Britons (in truth only the Rex of Aylesford) to his assistance, landed in Britain in a place that is called Ipwinesfleet; first of all to support the Britons, but they afterwards fought against them. The Rex directed them to fight against the Picts; and they did so; and obtained the victory wheresoever they came. They then sent to the Angles, and desired them to send more assistance. They described the worthlessness of the Britons, and the richness of the land. They then sent them greater support. Then came the men from three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes...”
455 “This year Hengest and Horsa fought with Wurtgern the
Rex on the spot that is called Aylesford. His brother Horsa
So they begin by betrayal, fighting against Wurtgern the Rex of Aylesford, mudering, and plundering, and eventually stealing the land and subjugating the population of that region.
457 – murdered 4000 at Crayford driving out the people of Kent.
465 – fought with the Welsh at Wippedfleet killing 12 leaders.
473 – attacked the Welsh and stole immense booty.
477 – attacked the Welsh driving them into Andred'sley.
485 – attacked the Welsh.
490 – besieged the city of Andred murdering every single inhabitant.
495 – attacked the Welsh.
501 - Porta and his two sons, Beda and Mela, came into Britain, with two ships, at a place called Portsmouth. They soon landed, and slew on the spot a young Briton of very high rank.
508 – murdered the Rex and five thousand men with him, stealing Netley as far as Charford.
514 – attacked the Albiens at Cerdic's-ore putting them to flight.
519 – attacked the people of Charford and took the region from them.
527 – attacked the people of Cerdic's-ley.
530 - attacked isle of Wight, and slew many men in Carisbrook.
552 – attacked the people of Sarum putting them to flight.
556 – attacked the people of Beranbury.
571 – attacked the people of Bedford, and stole four towns, Lenbury, Aylesbury, Benson, and Ensham.
577 - murdered three Rex's, Commail, and Condida, and Farinmail, stealing Derham, Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath.
584 – attacked the people of Fretherne stealing immense booty and wealth.
591 – a great slaughter of the indigenous Britons at Wanborouge.
They settled in southern England, and established themselves within sovereign Kingdoms, in contrast to the Albic model, these were, the kingdom of the East Angles, the Kingdom of the Middle Angles, the Kingdom of the south Angles, which later became East Anglia (Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and part of modern Essex). The Saxons settles in the Kingdom of the East Saxons, the Kingdom of the West Saxons, the Kingdom of the Middle Saxons, and the Kingdom of the South Saxons (Middlesex, Sussex, Wessex and part of Essex), as you can see this means they settled in southern Britain, additionally they attempted from this point in the chronicled A-S history to give the perception of a Christianised indigenous population, the real installing of the ignorance of religion and its subjugating infrastructure however didn't take hold until after the extermination of the population from 1066 onwards.
At the time they settled, the idea of England (Land of the Angles) had not been conceived by the indigenous peoples, as they were not Angles and knew their country as Albien, it is also the basis of the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland, Alba. This indicates strongly the indigenous peoples identified the islands they inhabited as shared, no distinction was expressed, in contrast to the German immigrants sovereigns, in league with the Roman Catholic Church, who wished to steal the island of Albien from the indigenous peoples, as became evident from their actions from that point.
The catalytic event that transformed the nature and order of Albien was in 562, before this point the population was enormous, they built in the Roman style of construction, with under floor heating, steam baths, viaducts etc, quiet advanced and developed methods. Then over night they were returned to stick huts covered in mud, the population was drastically reduced, the buildings that had existed before that point were gone.
Evidence of a meteor hitting the North Sea in 562 is supported not only by the physical evidence of the event itself, but the transformation of the society after that point, from archaeological sites examined demonstrating the return to a primitive state of living.
This event would have made people take stock of the way they had been living, and seen the event as a punishment and wake up call from their creator, leaving them receptive to alternative and more righteous methods of community. Over the next 200 years these systems were developed and perfected, polycentric community, natural law held within surety bond and enforced through a rex championing the weak, with human energy economics and allodial rights of use, the system was a shining example.
The beginning of the Roman Catholic Church conspiracy.
Had the Papacy decided Albien was to belong to the Anglo-saxons not the indigenous population?
The Anglo-Saxon chronicles A.D. 816: “This year died Pope Stephen; and Paschalis was consecrated pope after him. This same year the hostelry/quarter/school of the English nation (Angelcynnes) at Rome was destroyed by fire.” A nation that did not exist, they originating from a region of Germany, so would have been the Germanic nation, not for another 2 centuries would they steal Albien, yet referenced in the chronicle, as if it was intended, or named retrospectively by the chronicle writer, to propagate the perception of such.
Pope Gregory the Great (540 – 604 AD) is the first known to have simplified Anglii to Angli, which he did in an epistle (formal letter).
Angle is used as the root of the French and Anglo-Norman words Angleterre (Angleland, i.e. England) and anglais (English).
Outside of Britain within Europe Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus, meaning Charles the Great) (742 – 814) was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe.
Pope Leo III, who's actions had turned him into a criminal, was cast out by the Romans, who the Pope then accused of put out his eyes and tear out his tongue, even against the physical evidence, the stupidity of Christians stands as a true wonder. Leo was exiled, and fled to Charlemagne at Paderborn, asking him to intervene in Rome and restore him, which he did in 799.
Anglo-Saxon chronicles A.D. 797: “This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope Leo, put out his eyes, and drove him from his see; but soon after, by the assistance of God, he could see and speak, and became pope as he was before!”
At that time a woman reigned as Emperor in Constantinople, in the mind and ambitions of the Pope this meant there was no living Emperor, the Pope took the extraordinary step of creating a new Emperor, without precedent or justification of any sort. The papacy had since 727 been in conflict with Irene's predecessors in Constantinople over a number of issues, chiefly the continued Byzantine adherence to the doctrine of iconoclasm, the destruction of Christian images; while from 750, the secular power of the Byzantine Empire in central Italy had been nullified.
By bestowing the Imperial crown upon Charlemagne, the Pope abrogated to himself the right to appoint the Emperor of the Romans, establishing the imperial crown as his own personal gift, but simultaneously granting himself implicit superiority over the Emperor, whom he had created. And because the Byzantines had proved so unsatisfactory for the Papacy, from every point of view—political, military and doctrinal—he selected a westerner.
Charlemagne continued the policy of his father towards the Roman Catholic papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and waging war on the indigenous Spanish and Portuguese who embraced Islam, within Iberian peninsular. It was during one of these campaigns that Charlemagne experienced the worst defeat of his life, at the Battle of Roncesvalles (Northern Spain - 778), he also campaigned against the peoples to his east, especially the Saxons, his interest lay in extorting the tribute which for centuries they had paid to the Merovingians. after a protracted war, he succeeded and subjected them to his rule.
It may seem at odds with the idealized public relations epitome of Christian doctrine to wage war, but this is clearly directed within the Bible of this death cult, and equally clear in the history of the actions of its adherents, still to this day, a few examples:
"Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword.” (Matthew 10:34)
"Those mine enemies which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.” (Luke 19:27)
"Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division.” (Luke 12:51-2)
"Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the SWORD, destroying it utterly, and all that (is) therein, and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the SWORD.” (Deuteronomy 13:15)
"And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the SWORD.” (Leviticus 26:7)
"All the sinners of my people shall die by the SWORD, which say, The evil shall not overtake nor prevent us.” (Amos 9:10)
Never underestimate the appetite of Evangelical Christians for blood: they exercise the drinking of blood and eating of a man’s flesh in their churches every Sunday. Yes, this perverted act is symbolic; but all real acts start with symbolic rituals, the sheep as they call them who follow the shepherd of their church, commit crimes against their neighbours or families and receive absolution from the priesthood through informing upon themselves and their neighbours, mitigating the responsibility for their actions within their own minds, allowing them to continue to encroach upon those around them.
The death cult of the Roman Catholics go so far as to construct churches from the human bones of the dead, structures of true abominations upon the earth. I will list a few examples of human bone Roman Catholic Churches, who can say where these human beings came from, as the Church have an incredibly strong tradition for writing, and establishing false histories, and the destruction of evidence that would disprove their lies. But the profound disrespect for human life and death they demonstrate graphically within these structures speaks for itself. Capela dos Ossos: Evora, Portugal - San Bernardino alle Ossa: Milan, Italy - Hallstatt Karner: Hallstatt, Austria - Medieval Ossuary: Wamba, Spain - Sedlec Ossuary: Sedlec, Czech Republic - Capuchin Crypt: Rome, Italy - The Skull Cathedral of Otranto: Italy.
The Spanish and Portuguese transformation.
Spanish sovereigns were predominantly Catholic beginning around the 7th century, forcing their subjects to conform to Catholic subjugation, already the Catholics knew the Jewish methods of conquest, which was the taking over of key position of authority and establishing new social and legislative practices to serve them against the population.
Isidore (560-636) exceeds the anti-rabbinic polemics of earlier theologians by criticizing Jewish practice as deliberately disingenuous.
He contributed two harsh decisions to the Fourth Council of Toledo (633).
Canon 60: Calling for the forced removal of Jewish children from the parents and their education by Roman Catholic Christians.
Canon 65: Forbidding Jews and Christians of Jewish origin from holding public office.
From 711 AD, the people of Spain had begun to live Muslim, after 45 year (756 AD) of guidance from the Muslims of Damascus, the indigenous people established self administration.
The people of Portugal were part of the same transformation, slowly developing with their Spanish counterparts, known then as Al-Garb Al-Andalus, meaning The West of Paradise.
As early as 722 AD the Roman Catholics attacked these people, completely removing freedoms by 1249 AD, so complete a purging the only mosque left partially standing within Portugal is in Mertola, and that was converted to a Roman Catholic church after the Reconquista (meaning re-conquest), interesting use of name, re-conquest meaning the Christian Roman Catholics had previously conquered these people and were re-establishing their subjugation.
This relentless unprovoked assault perpetrated by the Roman Catholics on the peoples of Spain and Portugal lasted 516 years, the Reconquista was essentially completed in 1238 AD, when the only remaining Muslim state in Iberia, the Emirate of Granada, centered around the Alhambra a place with fresh clean running water, street lighting, and clean maintained streets, a sanitary environment, education for the people, in contrast to the filth and poverty of the Christian model at that time, this became a vassal of the Christian King of Castille.
This arrangement lasted for 250 years until dishonoured by the Roman Catholics, who launched the Granada War of 1492 AD, which finally expelled all Muslim authority from Spain.
Going back to the eighth century, Rex Offa who came to the head of the Rex system, allegedly after a period of civil war (we can surmise against the belligerent Anglo-Saxon Roman Catholics), and functioned serving as a Rex within Albien for 39 years (757 - 796 AD), was a clever administrator, guide and organiser, being fair and kind-hearted in everything that he did. The wealth and security created by the people of Albien with Offa’s custodianship, had great influence, socially and culturally, throughout their land.
Mercia: meaning land of the border people, was in reference to the boundary between the Anglo-Saxon immigrants and the indigenous population, the north south divide, this was never a kingdom, as the indigenous peoples were not structured with a sovereign and ownership model.
No counties existed at that time, the counties were the gift of the Normans after 1066, the region we now call Mercia was split into seven small sub-region, and each of these was split again into many, many even smaller sub-regions. Each one functioned independently, local autonomy for each small sub-region, as evidenced from the tribal Hidage, with Rex Offa as the Rex over the Rex‘s, a group which represented the enforcement of natural law through the championing of the weak.
The 'Tribal Hidage' document established within Offa‘s reign, presents the polycentric community structure of small autonomous communities, the word ‘Hidage’ means unit, and describes a tribal unit. A polycentric nodal community system without sovereignty, based on common law and a bonded society, within the surety model. The remnants of this old system are still present today within the market town and village organisation of communities throughout the country.
The hidas was the land of one family, the hida was divided into four virgates each around 30 to 40 acres, a yardland is a measure of land varying from fifteen to forty acres. So at most a hidas was 120 acres or 40 hectares.
Within the 'Tribal Hidage' are listed the name of the community and the number of family hida within them:
Woken-setna 7000. hidas.
Westerna 7000. hidas.
Pec-setna 1200. hidas.
Elmed-setna 600. hidas.
Lindes-farona 7000. hidas.
Suth-Gyrwa 600. hidas.
North-Girwa 600. hidas.
East-Wixna 300. hidas.
West-Wixna 600. hidas.
Spalda 600. hidas.
Wigesta 900. hidas.
Herefinna 1200. hidas.
Sweordora 300. hidas.
Eyfla 300. hidas.
Wicca 300. hidas.
Wight-gora 600. hidas.
Nox gaga 5000. hidas.
Oht gaga 2000. hidas.
Hwynca 7000. hidas.
Ciltern-setna 4000. hidas.
Hendrica 3000. hidas.
Unecung-ga 1200. hidas.
Aroseatna 600. hidas.
Fearfinga 300. hidas.
Belmiga 600. hidas.
Witherigga 600. hidas.
East-willa 600. hidas.
West-willa 600. hidas.
East-Engle 30000. hidas.
Eastsexena 7000. hidas.
Cant-warena 15000. hidas.
Suth-sexena 7000. hidas.
West-sexena 100000. hidas.
This adds up to: 243,600 hidas
(Ref: The Origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms S.Bassett, 1989.)
Considering this is only inclusive of part of Albien the population was considerable, as each Hidas represented an entire family group, Grandparents, their children, who were parents with their children.
Modern archaeology suggests, the population of Britons at the time of Christ could have numbered as many as ten million. If you go back to 54 BC Caesar himself remarks that the population of Britain was huge, so the population of Rex Offa’s era would have been extensive.
The system of allodial land rights of use (also an Islamic concept, but not exclusively) was in operation throughout the sovereignty free regions within Albien, before William the Bastard (Conqueror) arrived in 1066 AD. (For further detailed information on Allodial ownership read: 'Allodial Right of Use'.)
The law system of Mercia under Rex Offa, was completely free of any influence of Roman law, it was based on the original laws of the ancient tribes that settled Britain, those that migrated over from the Continent, already possessing an elaborate and developed legal system.
The system of surety known by many names in the many regions of Albien, we are going to examine Borh, this was the legal system of Albien (replaced in 1066 by the Frankpledge) and had 6 concepts as its foundation:
1) a predominant concern for individual rights and private and communal allodial property;
Each region of Albien had slight variations on the theme, but all followed the same basic structure.
Under the natural law system a set of ten to twelve individuals, defined at first by kinship but later by contractual agreement, would form a group to pledge surety for the good behaviour of its members. The group would back up this pledge by paying the fines of its members, who did not have the means, if they were found guilty of violating natural (common) law. A surety group thus had strong financial incentives to police its members and exclude (outlawry) those who persistently engaged in criminal behaviour.
Exclusion served as a powerful sanction: “Every living soul either had sureties and pledge associates or one would not be able to function beyond one's own land, as no one would deal with one who had no bond or who could not get anyone to pledge their surety to them.”
The courts, called moots, were public assemblies of common men and neighbours. The moots did not expend their efforts on creating or codifying the law. The outcome of a dispute turned entirely on the facts of the case, which were usually established through oath-giving. The disputants first swore to their accusations and denials. Each party then called on oath helpers (witnesses to any relevant events, and members of their surety groups in support of their good character) to back up these claims with oaths of their own. (It is contended by the Roman Catholic historians that ordeals were used for deadlock, but this seems very unlikely as it would be an encroachment upon natural (common) law)
Natural (common) law had no category for crimes against the state or against society -- it recognized only crimes against individuals, the fiction of the person was not recognised, only a human being, a system without the concept of a slave, the Christians constructed many 'legal' fictions to inflict slavery on the population, none of which are 'lawful'.
As in other customary law systems, the moots (courts) typically demanded that criminals pay restitution or compensation to their victims -- or else face the hazards of outlawry and blood-feud. Murderers owed wergeld (literally, " man-money" ) to their victims' kin. Lesser criminals owed their victims lesser fines, elaborately graded according to the victim's status and the importance of the limb, hand, digit, fingertip, etc., that had been lost (within tort remedy; a tort is an example a wrongful act previously established within a committee plea system, and through examining the precedent torts you can establish a remedy from those previous examples, otherwise a remedy would be established by the 12 peers committee plea sitting as the moot).
In recognition of the importance of private right of use, heavier penalties were also imposed for crimes occurring in or about the home, the most serious being hamesucken, i.e. smashing up someone's house. This emphasis on the home reflected natural (common) law's concern with protecting property rights, including the notion of a protected private space.
The concept of a Rex (meaning 'to put right').
A Rex was not a king, but an aspect of the law system. Men aided a Rex voluntarily. A Rex had to offer battle gear, food, and spoils ("armor stripped from an enemy, booty;" originally "skin stripped from a killed animal,") to get others to follow him into battle, more importantly, they volunteered to champion the cause of the weak -- for a fee, (as free human beings can not be lawfully bound with any sovereign, and under natural (common) law no sovereign or state can exist to compel). Their function as well as assuring people stood before their peers to account for their actions, was to take back stolen property and return it to the rightful possessor as the court established, to police in other words.
Weak victims sometimes found it difficult to convince their much stronger offenders to appear before the court. Rex's balanced the scales by backing the claims of such plaintiffs. This forced brazen defendants to face the court, where they faced the usual fines plus (if requiring to be forcibly summoned) a surcharge that went to the Rex as payment for his services.
This surcharge, called wite, made enforcing the law a profitable business for the Rex. This has passed down to the present day, the court issue court writs, warrants, prerogatives, and subpoenas, which are all forms of writ.
The modern Writ system has passed down from antiquity and mimics in some respects the old model. In the natural (common) law system the writ is handed to the party accused of an encroachment, the writ has the encroachment and what was demanded in restitution, if the recipient fails to show up at court, after the writ was given and served, then the police in the modern world or in the ancient by the Rex who would execute it, this has been reversed in its present form, so the court issue the writ authorised by the king or Queen, as opposed to the authorising of the Rex through the writ through the authority of the victim.
The Rex occupation was not the Christian King sovereign model as practised within the Christianised European tribes, it had no authority to establish a corporate state, nation or crown, it was simply a function of the courts, to establish justice, so 'to put right' injustice.
Natural law is the true model suggested within the Qur’an, not the Christian based Sharia Law now propagated as the Qur‘anic law model, which is largely free of the guidance or authority of the Qur'an.
The ancient writ model of Natural (common) law is still the foundation of all law. “It is a very old principle of English law that the plaintiff must inform the defendant about the facts on which his grievance is grounded and the remedy which he seeks.” (Bereford, C.J. In 1310 in reference to Sir Ralph Hengham)
The Natural (common) law still underpins the fiction of legislation we all suffer today, they use fictions to prevent its application: "When a waivable Right or claim is involved, the failure to make a reservation thereof, causes a loss of the Right, and bars its assertion at a later Date." (UCC 1-207.9)
The Two Basic Common Laws
1. Do all you have agreed to do
2. Do not encroach on other living man/woman or their property. (Richard J. Maybury -Whatever Happened to Justice? - Bluestocking Press, CA 95667; 1993)
"Do all you have agreed to do" is the basis for contract law.
"Do not encroach... " is the basis for criminal law and tort law.
A "tort" is harm done to someone.
Black's Law Dictionary defines encroach as: “To enter by gradual steps or stealth into the possessions or rights of another; to trespass or intrude. To gain or intrude unlawfully upon the lands, property, or authority of another.”
Cicero (106BC – 43BC) was a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, who understood the concept of common law:
"True law is right reason, consonant with nature, diffused among all men, constant, eternal.....It needs no interpreter or expounder but itself, nor will there be one law in Rome and another in Athens, one in the present and another in time to come, but one law and that eternal and immutable shall embrace all peoples and for all time and there shall be as it were one common master and ruler, the God of all, the author and judge and proposer of this law.” (C.H.McIlwain, The Growth of Political Thought in the west (New York Mac-millian, 1932)pp.111-12, quoting from the De republica)
Now consider the people who masquerade as "government". They create legislation upon the people, removing Natural (common) law and exploiting the population for the benefit of those in positions of power, perceptible and hidden, consider to what extent do they respect other persons or property?
It seems that so-called "government" is simply natural (common) law turned upside-down?
Understanding the Rex and writ model gives a better perspective of the execution of Rex Ethelbert of East Anglia from the Roman Catholic account, where they suggest he minted coins under Offa`s over-lordship with his own image upon them, they sight this as the act instigating his execution as a traitor. He was however made a saint by the Catholics and Hereford Cathedral was dedicated to him.
Historians apply the Christian sovereign model to the use of Rex names upon coinage, which would break natural law, this demands a more logical basis; a named Rex would be as a form of proof of purity, having the rex named standing surety for the coin, so if the coin was found not to be pure the Rex themselves would be liable and outraged at the use of their name, giving a personal determination to hunt down and bring to the Moot for remedy, anyone found accused of such an act of fraud.
It's far more likely Offa, as the head of the Rex Moot (court) system, sent his wife who it would seem worked as a Rex in his family business; she and those with her championing the cause of the weak, executed Ethelbert because he was corrupt and functioned against his mandate, the corruption of a person working as a Rex undermined the entire law system, or using their position to undermine the coinage system, would demanded prompt and severe action. This execution outraged the Roman Catholic pontiff, who are founded historically on betrayal and corruption.
The reason for the myth of King Arthur.
The legend of King Arthur was manufactured by Geoffrey of Monmouth who was born sometime around 1100, perhaps in Monmouth in southeast Wales. His father was named Arthur. Geoffrey was appointed archdeacon of Llandsaff in 1140 and was consecrated bishop of St. Asaph in 1152, he died c. 1155. In his 'Historia Regum Britanniae' (completed in 1138) he manufactured a line of English kings, a fiction where he installed Arthur, along with Merlin the wizard and Guinevere the adulterous to establish a fraudulent claim of the monarchy. Geoffrey also wrote a Vita Merlini (Life of Merlin) in verse in about 1150, these literary fictions were used and perceived as true until the 17th century.
Christianity subjugate women to a subservient position, so painting women as betrayers and adulterers, they accuse 'Guinevere' possibly in context of Cynethryth of infidelity within her marriage to 'Arthur' possibly in context to Offa, which caused Queens having all authority withheld from future English Christian kings` wives. She represented the power of the law system established within Albien, even subjugating the Christian sovereigns to a limited degree, this was too powerful for some of the southern Christian thanes, who within the Christian model enjoy a two tier legal system, affording no justice to any against themselves the sovereign, whose dictates were law; additionally Christianity view women as the root of evil and subservient to men. But Arthur is a fiction and may have no basis in historical fact at all.
Unlike kingdoms, the Tribal Hidage system of Albien held women in high esteem, and the Rex's wife in their own right would be able to serve the same function if required, the Christian historians suggest in the issue of charters in their own names, but within the lawful structure no concept of state, nation, sovereign, or corporation, would have been recognised under the Natural law system, so the Charter concept was never applicable, as a charter is a superior giving an inferior man a right, but under natural law all men and women are equal in the sight of the law, and all documents claiming to be charter would be forged after 1066 to support theft and give justifications, the Christian Thanes would have given Charters to stolen property, as they functioned as bandits, attacking without provocation to murder, rape and plunder the innocent.
"The only genuine documents to survive from before 1066 with seals attached are writs of the Thane Edward the Confessor (1042–65), and Gervase of Canterbury says that he was ‘the first of the kings of (a single county of) England who appended pressed wax on his charters as a testimony of the truth.” (Gesta regum Anglorum, ed. Stubbs, RS 83 (1880), ii, 59).
The execution in the royal residence of Tamworth in 794 of the now Saint Ethelbert, upset the Roman Catholic Church and Offa`s Queen Cynethryth is painted by them as the evil-doer, for that it was agreed within the church that no more Albien Rex's wives used the authority of a Rex, of course they were powerless to enforce this until after 1066.
The authority of the Christian Kings as sovereign within their Kingdoms of the southern part of Albien was in some part submissive to the Natural (common) law of Albien and so answerable to the Rex legal structure, they worked to remove this constraint that had been so indisputably enforced by Offa's wife.
The fabrication of history created after 1066, is presented as they had no choice at that time but to concede upon themselves the Angles, 'Rex Anglorum' to Rex Offa who represented the head of the Rex structure. This document 'Rex Anglorum' never existed then and was never a concept that could have existed, it exists today as a proved cynically manufactured forgery created after the Norman conquest as justification for a unified subjugating monarch concept.
This document was used to establish a Christian sovereign system upon the meagre remnants of the peoples of Albien, it would have been nonsense at the time of Offa and would have given no license to William the Bastard, but even today propaganda is widely implemented to establish weak justifications for unjustifiable actions; just as present day Politicians like Blair fabricate weapons of mass destruction to invade and subjugate, steal and exploit others, for their hidden masters.
The Roman Catholics within the A-S Chronicles claim Offa's son became Christian, it seems unlikely given Offa's treatment of Roman Catholics in surviving documents outside of the Roman Catholic revisionists, but within a few months of working as a Rex his son was poisoned, after this Christian Rex's attempted to usurp authority within Albien, so it is asserted, but failed to subjugate the population who refused to recognise or utilise these corrupt and dishonourable men.
The Christian sovereign King model was regurgitated by William in 1066, using the fabricated document, created as justification after the event, for actions free of justice; 'Rex Anglorum' attributed to Offa to sanction William the bastard as sovereign, through the corruption and perversion of all that was honest and true.
Corruption of History.
Of all the leaders within British History the documents and evidence for Offa are almost totally expunged.
The Jesuit historians attempt to paint Rex Offa as a violent criminal King, as they contend that the people of Powys (a region of Wales), beginning in the 8th century fought with their neighbours to the east, but the Welsh were able to thwart attempted invasions. (Logically this can not be supported, if this was the case why would Rex Offa have helped to organise and build a defensive dyke. Another Christian idea is that the dyke was constructed to defend against raids from the sea from Norsemen or other undesirables, again this makes little logical sense, as the coast is a long march from the dyke, and raiders had hundreds of miles of open coast line to raid, if this problem ever existed, as the pagans of the Anglo-Saxon chronicles were the indigenous pagans, (being the peoples) of Albien not an invading force.)
A massive bank and ditch was constructed, and survives today as a potent symbol of the ancient origins of both nations, the dyke was built as a defensible (if not heavily defended) earthwork specifically erected against the belligerent 8th century kingdom of Powys, it ran 64 miles when originally constructed.
The question should be why did the people of Powys, attack Mercia (the border people) during Offa’s reign?
It seems the indigenous peoples didn't, but the Anglo-Saxon immigrants most certainly did, by their own accounts, they had been fighting with indigenous Welsh since they arrived in 449, and had subjugated regions of Wales under their control.
Christian sovereignty, a death cult manufactured through the Pontiff college, functioning as the vessels of the Roman Catholic empire, and it was through these insidious forces of manipulation that conflict was generated between these neighbours, so leading to the dyke's construction, to prevent the constant plundering, raping and murder that Christians love to indulge in, even today they follow the same pattern, invading regions of the world, to plunder, rape and murder in the name of their sovereigns.
In 675 Osric, King of the Hwicce, granted the Abbess Berta 100 hides near Bath for the establishment of a convent, the site of an earlier marvellously built pagan temple. This religious house later became a monastery under the patronage of the Bishop of Worcester. “Rex Offa of Mercia successfully wrested with violence and force, that most famous monastery at Bath” from the bishop in 781 (Ref: Robert Poliquin's Music and Musicians. Quebec University.), this highlight the fact Offa was not Christian, in fact was working to take back the property they stole as part of the function of being a Rex who worked toward the lawful order.
Alfred the Great (849 – 899)
After Offa the Christian sovereigns corruption and violence continued and increased in its demands for death and misery, this resulted in retribution. Starting around 823 onwards the Christian Anglo-Saxons attacked the indigenous population with great armies and murdered across the land, this resulted in a resentment building against them, often resulting in direct action, until the attackers become the attacked.
The Anglo Saxon Chronicle notes in 870 the tables begin to turn and the indigenous pagans take action. “At the same time came they to Medhamsted, burning and breaking, and slaying abbot and monks, and all that they there found. They made such havoc there, that a monastery, which was before full rich, was now reduced to nothing.”
Medhamsted was named because there was a well there called Meadswell, this was the site of St. Peters minster erected on the request of the Christian King Peada Son of Penda in 655, if you consider the actions attributed to Penda, he was a psychopath roaming around waging war on his neighbours, just as the Merovingians of the Silian Frankish dynasty, who called themselves Christian had done, a modern term for them would be bandits, after Penda was killed his son Peada lasted only a few months before he himself was killed.
This was the point, around 870, when the Christians began to be routed from the land, this death cult had, by its own account, murdered, robbed and subjugated within Albien for 370 years at that point.
During 871 the West Saxons in the southern counties under Christian county King, Alfred, (A.S Chronicle) “There were nine general battles .... south of the Thames, besides those skirmishes ...... which were accounted nothing” [App 1/27]. Asser
“and Alfred .... he fought a battle with a few men and on very unequal terms against all the army of the pagans ...... the Saxons had been worn out by eight battles in one year against the pagans who had slain one king, nine dukes and innumerable troops ...... both by night and day ... Alfred and all his chieftains with their men and several of his ministers were engaged without rest or cessation against the pagans” [App 2/23]
By 877 the fortunes of King Alfred were on the decline: “with a few of his nobles and certain soldiers and vassals .... used to lead an unquiet life among the woodlands ..... in great tribulation for he had none of the necessaries of life except what he could forage .... or steal from the pagans” [App 2/35]
Alfred and the survivors of his army retreated to Somerset, conducting raids against his enemies and in 878 built a base and defences at Athelney.
The Christian revisionists of history want us to believe Alfred was the King of Albien, when evidently he was a Christian thief and murder, under constant attack from the indigenous Albic peoples surrounding the Anglo-saxon immigrants, who called the indigenous people, pagans.
Rex Offa adapted and developed with the people of Albien the ancient monetary model, earlier revived by Pippin the Short, a system that was also adopted as the ‘Offa standard’ throughout the Frankish empire of Europe, implemented by Charlemagne, who abolished the monetary system based on gold, due to its shortage as a consequence of the dismemberment of the Byzantium Empire (Constantinople its centre) from Europe, and the ceding of Venice and Sicily with the loss of their lucrative trade routes.
This standardisation, harmonised the array of currencies in use, simplifying trade and commerce.
Offa's silver penny was the forerunner of modern coins, these coins are remarkable for the beauty of their execution, far exceeding in correctness, Offa also stood surety for minted gold coins, an example has survived. It was discovered in 1841 C.E., and is displayed in the British Museum, its a copy of the gold dinar of the Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur, which differs from the original by addition of an inscription 'OFFA REX'.
"Neither there is, nor (ever) shall there be a deity for worship and adoration, save for the One, who neither is, nor (ever) shall be a deity for worship and adoration, and Muhammad is the Apostle of the One who neither is, nor (ever) shall be a deity for worship and adoration”, and the further declaration, engraved around the margin of the coin, “Muhammad is the Apostle of the One who neither is, nor (ever) shall be a deity for worship and adoration, who sent him (Muhammad) with the doctrine and the true belief to prevail over every religion.”
Obverse: The centre text reads "Muhammad is the Apostle of the One who neither is, nor (ever) shall be a deity for worship or adoration, with the name of the Offa Rex written upside down within that text." The text around the circumference reads "With the foundation of (commonly wrongly translated as name of) the One who neither is, nor ever shall be a deity for worship or adoration (Allah). This (coin) was minted in 157 A.H." (157 A.H. corresponds to 773-774 C.E.).
This model remained in use, in a steadily degrading form, throughout Britain until 1971, initially a system based upon a pound ‘ £ ’ in weight of pure silver (sterling) – a unit of both money and weight, a pound of silver was divided into 240 deniers (from the Latin ‘denarius - containing ten’, representing the modern penny, with reference to the existing silver coinage. Also the scylling (modern shilling) worth five deniers), only the denier was a coin of the realm, no scyllings have been found from Offa’s time, but they are referenced in texts.
After Charlemagne's death, continental coinage degraded through sovereign 'usury' corruptions and frauds, so most of Christian Europe resorted to using the continued high quality, 'Pagan' or Islamic, Albic coins until about 1100.
The lending of money for interest was prohibited, strengthened in 814, when Charlemagne introduced the Capitulary (decree) for the Jews, a justifiable prohibition on Jews engaging in money-lending (synonyms: Usury - Riba - Loan sharking - Modern banking), note this prohibition was from the Emperor not the Pope. The Roman Catholic Church were loan sharks, or bankers, to the Christian sovereigns who subjugated the many nations of Europe, established through conquest and violence as manufactured corporations, founded on sovereignty. The Roman Catholics had no problem with usury beyond stopping competition.
In the reign of William the Conqueror a pound weight of silver was also the pound of account. The "Pound" represented both the weight of metal and the denomination of money, and had been so for at least the time of Rex Offa, this began to be debased with Christian control.
The history of the Catholic economic fraud.
Since the 1st Century BCE, its high priest, an hereditary position controlled by a handful of ancient (Jinn) families, claimed the ancient pre-Republic title of Pontifex Maximus after the Roman Emperors assumed themselves as high priest of the state cult of Magna Mater (Cybele).
A brutal and bloody cult -- involving child sacrifice, burning people alive, demonic worship and absolute celibacy of its lowest priests -- its epicentre for such evil being the giant Phrygianum atop Vatican Hill since the 2nd Century BCE.
A shrine located in the Vatican on the right bank of the River Tiber, near the racecourse of Caligula (Gaianum), known from several inscriptions on fragmentary marble altars of Cybele, dating from 305 to 390 A.D., all but one of which were found under the façade of S. Peter's in 1609. This shrine is probably the Frigianum (Phrygianum) of the Not. The Vatican was an important cult centre, for many Roman death cults.
In 313, Constantine and Licinius met at Milan, where the two emperors formulated a common religious policy out of necessity from the economic collapse brought on by the practices of usury, months later Licinius issued the Edict of Milan, however Licinius did not commit himself personally to Christianity. Constantine used the church as an instrument of imperial policy, imposed upon it his imperial ideology, and thus Christianity which was based upon Horus, with 200 matches in his story to that of Jesus, and later Crishna another reinvention of Horus had 346 striking analogies to the story of Jesus, was deprived of the independence it previously enjoyed.
The First Council of Nicaea was convened in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) in A.D. 325. The Council was the first effort to establish the Roman Catholic church through an assembly representing all the 'pontiff college', the ancient institution that had existed to oversee all the religions of Rome for centuries, which had for a great portion of that history had a Pope presiding over all the religions.
The ecumenical council was convened by the Roman Emperor Constantine I, who had invited all 1800 bishops of the Christian church. “Resplendent in purple and gold, Constantine made a ceremonial entrance at the opening of the council, probably in early June, but respectfully seated the bishops ahead of himself." (Carroll, 11) “proceeded through the midst of the assembly, like some heavenly messenger of God, clothed in raiment which glittered as it were with rays of light, reflecting the glowing radiance of a purple robe, and adorned with the brilliant splendor of gold and precious stones.” (Eusebius, The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, Book 3, Chapter 10)
Constantine was an idolater who believed in the worship of the Sun God Sol Invictus, whom he regarded as the only God. He filled all the trappings of state, such as banners, statues and coinage with symbols of his religion. Right up to the conclusion of his life he acted as the high priest of this religion, calling his reign the era of Sun-Emperorship, only as he lay dying was he baptised, when the Christians took advantage of his weakness to resist.
The Egyptians are one of the earliest recorded cultures to fully embrace the sun as a deity. Ra was the major cosmic deity. Early Egyptian kings claimed descent from his lineage. At the beginning of the Middle Kingdom (2134-1668 B.C.E) the worship of Ra, for all intents and purposes, became a state religion.
The parallel in Christianity is the Merovingians who claim a direct linage to Christ and so a right to subjugate and exploit the population, this Jinn bloodline flows through to the descendants perpetrating the present monarchies of the modern world.
During the Theban dynasties the god was melded to Amon and was transformed into the supreme god Amon-Ra. Later renamed Aton, which was proclaimed the one true and only god, on the surface creating the first monotheistic religion. An early example of the concept of the trinity is also in evidence, for the Egyptians believed in a divine father, mother, and son (Osiris, Isis, Horus), this also explains the use of the term 'āmen' expressed at the conclusion of any prayer, in the affirmation of the Sun God, this concludes prayers in the modern world for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, possibly others.
The BRAMA of the Hindus, and MITHRAS of the Persians, and ATHOM, AMUM, PHTHA, and OSIRIS, of the Egyptians, the BEL of the Chaldeans, the ADONAI of the Phœnicians, the ADONIS and APOLLO of the Greeks, became but personifications of the Sun.
From this ancient cosmological vantage point the god dowelled in and ruled the heavens, this established a God in the sky belief.
"In Rome December 25 was made popular by Pope Liberius in 354 and became the rule in the West in 435 when the first “Christ mass” was officiated by Pope Sixtus III. This coincided with the date of a celebration by the Romans to their primary god, the Sun, and to Mithras, a popular Persian sun god supposedly born on the same day. The Roman Catholic writer Mario Righetti candidly admits that, “to facilitate the acceptance of the faith by the pagan masses, the Church of Rome found it convenient to institute the 25thof December as the feast of the birth of Christ to divert them from the pagan feast, celebrated on the same day in honour of the ‘Invincible Sun’ Mithras, the conqueror of darkness” (Manual of Liturgical History, 1955, Vol. 2, p. 67).
The sun religions Ankhs symbolized everlasting life and generation, the Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians, replaced by the Chi-Rho monogram, which was adopted by Constantine from his labarum (military standard), later replaced by the death on the cross symbol.
Due to the usury collapse within the Roman empire, Rome was no longer viable as the base of operations, so ultimately Constantinople was founded, Constantine without question began the construction of two major churches in Constantinople, Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) and Hagia Eirene (Holy Peace); the foundation of a third, the Church of the Holy Apostles, may be attributed to him with a measure of certainty. Unlike the Old Rome, which was filled with pagan monuments and institutions, the New Rome was essentially the Emperors vision of a Christian capital.
Constantine worked to incorporate the religions, to form a united, cohesive single religion of the state. "Faith.... was for Constantine a political matter, and any faith that was conductive to unity was treated with forbearance.” (The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. 1996 ed. p.388)
This is why the Torah was incorporated as the old but still relevant text and the new text was created to unite these sects. If we examine First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, who attempts to impose a Roman based religious hierarchy upon the new Christian religion around 97AD by rooting Christ in Judaism and the texts of the Torah, additionally imbuing Christ as Sovereign, the lord to follow and establishing the myth of resurrection as first established in the Sun religion of Eygpt with the god Horus, who was the son of God, who died on the cross for our sins and was resurrected.
"Clem. 25:1 Let us consider the marvellous sign which is seen in the regions of the east, that is, in the parts about Arabia.
Clem. 25:2 There is a bird, which is named the phoenix. This, being the only one of its kind, liveth for five hundred years; and when it hath now reached the time of its dissolution that it should die, it maketh for itself a coffin of frankincense and myrrh and the other spices, into the which in the fullness of time it entereth, and so it dieth.
Clem. 25:3 But, as the flesh rotteth, a certain worm is engendered, which is nurtured from the moisture of the dead creature and putteth forth wings. Then, when it is grown lusty, it taketh up that coffin where are the bones of its parent, and carrying them journeyeth from the country of Arabia even unto Egypt, to the place called the City of the Sun;
Clem. 25:4 and in the daytime in the sight of all, flying to the altar of the Sun, it layeth them thereupon; and this done, it setteth forth to return.
Clem. 25:5 So the priests examine the registers of the times, and they find that it hath come when the five hundredth year is completed.
Clem. 26:1 Do we then think it to be a great and marvellous thing, if the Creator of the universe shall bring about the resurrection of them that have served Him with holiness in the assurance of a good faith, seeing that He showeth to us even by a bird the magnificence of His promise?” (Translated by J.B. Lightfoot. Adapt. and mod. (c) 1990) So he justifies the lie of the resurrection with the fantasy of the phoenix.
"Clem. 44:1 And our Apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be strife over the name of the bishop's office.
Clem. 44:2 For this cause therefore, having received complete foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid persons, and afterwards they provided a continuance, that if these should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed to their ministration. Those therefore who were appointed by them, or afterward by other men of repute with the consent of the whole Church, and have ministered unblamably to the flock of Christ in lowliness of mind, peacefully and with all modesty, and for long time have borne a good report with all these men we consider to be unjustly thrust out from their ministration.
Clem. 44:3 For it will be no light sin for us, if we thrust out those who have offered the gifts of the bishop's office unblamably and holily.” (Translated by J.B. Lightfoot. Adapt. and mod. (c) 1990) He establishes the Bishops office.
The Pope of Rome, Eusebius, regarded Constantine as divine and stated that the Creator was embodied in him. “Since the beginning of the world it is to Constantine alone that the power of salvation has been given. Christ is set aside, Christ is formally denied....Constantine now stands alone as the saviour of the world...” (The Messianic Legacy)
"Constantine dealt with the matter of religion from a political angle only, by expelling all the bishops who he expected would not sign the new declaration of faith, and in this manner he achieved the unity he wanted.” (The Heretics. By Walter Nigg.)
Christian doctrine formed on the basis of an emperor's authority. This doctrinal text written by Constantine himself, for the people who gathered at the council of Nicea, still forms the foundation and reference point for the doctrine of all Christian groups.
All works and writing that opposed the decrees of Nicea were to be collected and destroyed. Emperor Diocletian had destroyed all Christian writings that could be found. “Of the five thousand extant early manuscripts of the New Testament, not one pre-dates the fourth century. The New Testament, as it exists is essentially a product of fourth century editors and writers.”(The Heretics. By Walter Nigg.)
"After Constantine, the Christ was depicted as one who had power over death, and as the ruler of the universe.”(The Lost Gospel. - Burton L Mack)
The church took the birthday of the Sun, the winter solstice in the northern hemisphere, the festival of "Natalis Invicti" on 25 December in Europe but varies upon geographical location, as in Russia for example Christmas falls on the 4th January. The Sabbath was changed from Saturday as established by the early Christians to Sunday, the day of the Sun.
In the 325 council they established the new foundations of their ecclesiastical corporation, "ecumenical" derived from Greek 'oikoumenikos' means "worldwide", Augustus had in the past claimed to be ruler of the oikoumene/world, therefore the Pope was owner of the world and all within it; Augustus promoted the ideal of a superior Roman civilization with a task of ruling the world, so an Emperor, a king, a president could rule what the Pope owned.
They made the Pope the vicar of Christ, and they made Christ God, so the Pope was the religious adviser to God; the word vicar means 'a substitute', meaning a vicar is a substitute who acts in place of another, so in effect the Pope is God on earth, under the Roman Catholic Church logic.
In the Eastern Orthodox churches Constantine is regarded a saint.
The Knights Templar
The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, commonly known as the Knights Templar, the Order of the Temple, was founded in 1118 and had managed through usury to amass a financial empire with vast holdings after just two centuries. The Templars created the first international banking system. Pilgrims heading off to the Holy Land would deposit money with a local branch, in exchange for a letter of credit, redeemable just about everywhere along their route. By the 14th century, the Knights Templar had become Europe's dominant religious order. They were more than 7,000 members strong. They held almost 900 castles. And they controlled unimaginable wealth in land, gold, and power.
In France, King Philip IV owed the Templars a lot of money, which he didn't really feel like repaying. So a scheme was hatched with Pope Clement V. In 1307, the Pope summoned Jacques de Molay, the group's Grand Master, to Paris. There they were supposed to enter negotiations on merging the Knights Hospitallers with de Molay's group. No such luck. Instead, he and his staff were arrested by King Philip and turned over to the Inquisition. Philip's men swept through the country, in just two days arresting 15,000 men associated with the accused.
The Pope wanted what they had amassed, so in collusion with the king of France forcibly disbanded their organization in March 1312, announced in a Papal Bull accusing the Templars of having fallen “into the sin of impious apostasy, the abominable vice of idolatry, the deadly crime of the sodomites, and various heresies.” Plus, renouncing Jesus and spitting on the cross.
In March 1314, Jacques de Molay was sentenced to life imprisonment by the Inquisition. The sentence was announced during a public ceremony at Notre Dame cathedral. In exchange for his full confession, de Molay had received leniency. But before they could stop him, de Molay suddenly retracted his confession:
“I confess that I am indeed guilty of the greatest infamy. But the infamy is that I have lied. I have lied in admitting the disgusting charges laid against my Order. I declare, and I must declare, that the Order is innocent. Its purity and saintliness have never been defiled. In truth, I had testified otherwise, but I did so from fear of horrible tortures.”
So, instead of life in prison, de Molay and his subordinate Geoffroy de Charnay were burned alive three days later. They were taken to the Isle of Javiaux in the Seine, not far from Notre Dame. There they were slow roasted over a pile of hot, smokeless charcoal. It took hours for them to die.
The Roman Catholic Church assumed control of all the assets and businesses of the Templar's, and expanded their functions as a loan shark to the sovereign heads and land barons of Europe, while the Jews served as loan sharks to the poorer classes. “It was a conspicuous practice in the communities of Jews in England, whose money-lending activities had been supervised by the Crown since the days of Richard I” (A R Hogue- Origins of Common Law- p.219)
Henry VIII (1491 - 1547) a psychopath and murderer, who was a fat, greedy and carnal man, rejected the authority of the Catholics; because it only allowed one cardinal out of fifty to serve in England from the native population, and no possibility of there being an English pope. For reasons of state it was increasingly intolerable that major decisions in England were settled by Italians, Cardinal Wolsey dominated the government, Henry took back much of his sovereignty, the numerous religious houses that controlled large tracts of land were dissolved (1536–1541), he transferred a fifth of England's landed wealth to new hands. primarily to create a landed gentry beholden to the crown.
The answer to this loss of land power was the establishment of the power of debt, usury is the most powerful dominating force and this became the objective of the Church. None of the Stuarts would grant the fervent desire of the Roman Catholics and charter an English national bank. That is why murder, civil war, and religious conflicts plagued their reigns.
The first poor attempt to remove the line of Stuart and install a Scottish royal by the Jesuits was the Essex rebellion of 1601 followed by the thwarted conspiracy on November the 5th 1605.
In 1605 a solitary figure was arrested in the cellars under the house of Lords with 36 barrels of gun powder, under torture Guy Fawkes confessed he was one of thirteen Roman Catholics who had conspired to blow up the parliament, the King, and his Lords, thereby throwing the country into turmoil, out of which these traitors hoped to raise a new monarch, sympathetic to their cause, and return England to Catholic subjugation, so allowing their goal of a charter for the bank.
The Jesuits worked tirelessly behind the scenes to get them to charter the Bank; nothing succeeded, until the manufacturing of a civil war that finally saw King James II deposed then executed. The Jesuits (society of Jesus) known as God's Marines, are the largest order of the Roman Catholic church and all male, numbering over 19,000 today, founded in 1534 to replace the equally murderous and corrupt order of the Knights Templar.
William III (William of Orange - king from 1688 to 1702) was invited to the English throne, a money-changer from Holland, being a tool of the Wisselbank of Amsterdam, and the Bank of Rome. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), England spent a huge amount of money helping the Hollanders to throw off the Spanish yoke. Their reward was their removal and replacement by the Bank of Rome controlled William of Orange.
After the incorporation of the Bank, peace and quiet returned to merry old England. No more royal heads rolled and no more civil wars. After that it didn't matter what was the religious beliefs of the monarchs. The Jesuits preferred that they were "Protestants" as they could take the blame for the wars, poverty and pauperism which inevitably followed widespread usury and money lending.
So on the 27th July 1694 the first modern bank to be opened ultimately for general use was established by the Roman Catholic Jesuits headed by William Paterson (born 1658), in Edinburgh under Royal Charter within the Tonnage act. Soon events were engineered to plunge Europe into the French and Napoleonic Wars (1793 – 1815).
The first attempt to crush the French Republic came in 1793 when Austria, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of Naples, Prussia, Spain and the Kingdom of Great Britain formed the First Coalition.
The Second Coalition was formed in 1798 by Austria, Great Britain, the Kingdom of Naples, the Ottoman Empire, Papal States, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and other states.
Unlike its many coalition partners, Britain remained at war throughout the period of the French and Napoleonic Wars (1793 – 1815), resulting in the new bank lending money to the government at an interest charge of 8%, agreed upon together with a £4,000 per annum management charge (do not forget that this was in the 1600s!). The first Governor of the Bank was Sir John Houblon who is the face you see on the fifty pound notes of today. These original loans were not to be repaid, only the interest in perpetuity, the bankers demanded that a tax must be levied upon each working person, so this was the point modern income tax established, and even today 3% of personal income tax goes directly to repay this original loan from over 200 years ago.
The Zionist take over of the bank.
From the start of the French and Napoleonic Wars, right up to the final victory in 1815 the Rothschild brothers, Nathan and James helped to maintain and orchestrate war and finance both the French and the English.
With advanced knowledge of the British victory, through the use of carrier pigeon, Nathan Rothschild spread lies that the British had been defeated, which caused a crash in the value of British Government Bonds. While panicked English investors sold up their life savings, Nathan Rothschild bought-up their bonds for pennies.
When official news of the British victory at Waterloo arrived, the English Bond market sky-rocketed and so did Nathan Rothschild's wealth.
In one foul swoop, the demon brothers had deceived and defrauded the investors and taken control of the public shares of the Bank of England, today it is estimated that the Rothschild family have a personal fortune of 500 trillion dollars. (That is enough wealth to make every human being in America 309.5, Canada 34.1, Britain 62, Australia 22.4, New Zealand 4.4, Maldives 0.4, and France 65.4, a MILLIONAIRE, and have plenty of change. If you consider the level of theft these parasites have orchestrated upon humanity, the gross turnover of the entire planet is only 58 trillion.)
In 1810 men of sagacity observed that the exchanges had been for a considerable period unfavourable to this country, more unfavourable than could be accounted for by the balance of trade or the monetary transactions of the country.
A committee was appointed to inquire into the subject, sophistry was employed to redirect the question simply to give their definition of what was the Pound Sterling.
The last definition of the standard of value which I shall quote is this: “The standard is neither gold nor silver, but it is something set up in the imagination, to be regulated by public opinion.”
The establishment of Democracy
The Rothschild's instigate the French revolution in 1789 in an attempt to purge Europe of the widespread failure of Roman Catholic authority, as the religious frauds were being exposed through the revolution of the printing press, and the removal of the absolute monarch system which was difficult to dominate, so the Church and the Rothschild’s worked to establishment the fraud of democracy.
"The French armies of the Directory, now intent on the destruction of the structures of Catholic temporal power, entered Rome on 29th August 1799, Pope Pius VI was kidnapped, an action sanctioned by the Directory in Paris who referred to him as the 'last Pope'. He died in captivity, a broken man. The remaining Cardinals fled to Austrian held Venice to convene the conclave for the inauguration of a successor.
The election of Pius VII succeeded despite the denial of St Mark's Cathedral as a coronation venue by the Austrian authorities intent on controlling the power of the new pontiff.” (The Popes and European Revolution, Oxford University Press, 1981; pp. 481-3. Owen Chadwick)
The Pope is monarch and is traditionally crowned and ascends to the throne, or See of Rome. The Holy Roman See is derived from 'Sancta sedes', meaning Holy chair, in reference to the throne that the Pope occupies after his enthronement.
The Roman Catholics use the threat upon them generated by the Rothschild's to create support for a new emperor, Napoleon. Cardinal Chiaramonti, the Bishop of Imola, in his 1797 Christmas sermon, baptised democracy, this Bishop was the Pope elected to replace Pius VI, as Pope Pius VII.
"The new Emperor, Napoleon Bonaparte, no longer a tool of the Directory, had now reconciled his views on the position of the Roman Catholic Church in national life, and concluded a Concordat with the Pope later in the year. (1800)” (The Popes and European Revolution, Oxford University Press, 1981; Owen Chadwick)
The Bank of England was the driving force behind the false perception of the separation of England from her colonies in the New World through war and later the subjugation through civil war.
The Bank of England's strategy was to completely control the British Government. Then they could apply pressure on the colonies and force them to rebel. Lastly, they would impose a Bank of England type bank on the Colonies. This they did in the year 1791. It was called the Bank of the "United States", BUS for short, General Jackson refused to renew the bank charter and it died an unnatural death in 1836.
The corrupt bankers worked hard to re-charter their fraud, but were thwarted by the Russian Tzar's, this outraged the Rothschild's who swore to remove every member of their bloodline from the world, which they eventually achieved, by funding and orchestrating the take over of the Russian empire, and the invention of Communism, but with the main goal, the weakening of the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
Karl Marx, the son of Hirschel and Henrietta Marx, was born in Trier, Germany, in 1818, he was a Jew, he founded and edited a radical newspaper, Rheinische Zeitung, and wrote 'Economic and Political Manuscripts' 1844, 'Theory of Surplus Value' 1862, Communist Manifesto' 1848, in the explicit hope of precipitating social revolution. Communism stands as the worst of all systems it is the polar opposite to the concepts of Islam, it removes the individual and empowers the system upon them.
"The Jewish people as a whole will be its own Messiah. It will attain world domination by the dissolution of other races...and by the establishment of a world republic in which everywhere the Jews will exercise the privilege of citizenship. In this New World Order the Children of Israel...will furnish all the leaders without encountering opposition..." (Karl Marx in a letter to Baruch Levy, quoted in Review de Paris, June 1, 1928, p. 574)
Lev Davidovich Bronstein was Ukrainian, he was a Jew so changed his name to Leon Trotsky, to hide this fact.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, known as Vladimir Lenin, was Jewish on his mothers side, he said "The establishment of a central bank is 90% of communizing a nation.”
Lenins thoughts on anti-Semitism: “The tsarist police, in alliance with the landowners and the capitalists, organised pogroms (pogroms are mob attacks) against the Jews. The landowners and capitalists tried to divert the hatred of the workers and peasants who were tortured by want against the Jews. ... It is not the Jews who are the enemies of the working people. The enemies of the workers are the capitalists of all countries. Among the Jews there are working people, and they form the majority. They are our brothers, who, like us, are oppressed by capital; they are our comrades in the struggle for socialism. ... The capitalists strive to sow and foment hatred between workers of different faiths, different nations and different races. ... Rich Jews, like rich Russians, and the rich in all countries, are in alliance to oppress, crush, rob, and disunite the workers. ... Shame on those who foment hatred towards the Jews, who foment hatred towards other nations.”
The Rothschild's wished to weaken the power of religion that dominated the peasants of Russia, using the communist doctrine, that religion was an opiate that needed to be removed, they attempted to purge Russia of Religion.
The monarchy of Catherine the Great understood the danger the loan sharking of the Jews posed to the people and created the first Pale of Settlement in 1791 by establishing a region in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited. During the reign of Alexander II, was the Emancipation Reform of 1861, Russian Serfs were granted the full rights of free citizens, gaining the rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business. In Georgia, from which origins of the Jewish nation can be traced, over 90% of modern Jews descended from there, including the Rothschild's, the emancipation was postponed till 1864 and on much better terms for the land barons, than in Russia. The Tzar was assassinated in 1881, done with the intention to ignite a revolution, but it did not, the main consequence of the assassination was anti-Jewish pogroms and legislation.
In 1905 the Ashkenazi Jews in Russia organised a wave of mass political and social unrest some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected.
On March 29th 1919 The Times of London reports on the Bolsheviks in Russia, “One of the curious features of the Bolshevist movement is the high percentage of non Russian elements among its leaders. Of the twenty or thirty commissaries, or leaders, who provide the central machinery of the Bolshevist movement, not less than 75% were Jews.”
In 1928 the Rothschild's installed the extreme clinical psychopath Joseph Dzhugashvili (1879-1953) who changed his name to Joseph Stalin (Stalin means "man of steel"), he was half-Jewish, 90% of the leaders of communism were Jews, many of them were flown in from New York and could not even speak Russian. And Rothschild, Jacob Schiff, the head of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., Jewish mafia-banking families, funded the most powerful and murderous dictatorship in history. Under the dictatorship of Stalin, tens of millions of ordinary individuals were executed or imprisoned in death camps, the churches were destroyed the priest and monks executed, the people crushed in fear, subjugated into abject misery and suffering.
"By the time Stalin's wrath descended on his countrymen and women, the USSR had already suffered a devastating decline in its cohort of younger adult males. World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the subsequent civil war that pitted "Reds" against "Whites," had inflicted its "heaviest" losses "in the age group 16-49, particularly in its male contingent," writes Richard Pipes, "of which it had eradicated by August 1920 -- that is, before the famine [of 1922] had done its work -- 29 percent." The monstrous famines of the early 1920s and early 1930s were indiscriminate in their impact on the afflicted populations. But the campaign of mass executions launched against the kulaks -- designated "wealthier" peasants -- also overwhelmingly targeted males. "In Kiev jail they are reported at this time [1929-30] shooting 70-120 men a night.”
This had removed the problem of the Russian Tzars for the Rothschild's, but still they had resistance in the Congress and continued to plot and scheme to establish their fraud, to the extent of sinking, with explosives, the Titanic on her maiden voyage 14 April 1912; construction of RMS Titanic, was funded by the American J.P. Morgan who in 1902 formed the International Mercantile Marine Company with the subsidiary, the White Star Line. With her life boats removed, davits able to carry 64 lifeboats, held only 16 wooden lifeboats (16 being the minimum required by the Board of Trade, based on Titanic's projected tonnage), 1517 of the 2223 aboard perished. Control of the media, allowed the fabrication of a ridiculous lie to hide the crime, much like the false flag events they continue to perpetrate even to this day, like 911 in New York.
By doing this they eliminated many of the politicians standing against them, simply by organising events to have them as passengers on the ship, so the following year on December 23rd 1913, when most of congress were away on holiday they got their fraud under the name "Federal" Reserve Bank of the "U.S.", a private bank that is not federal and holds no reserve, with the false perception of being a benefit and service to the masses, much like its sister private bank, the Bank of England.
The Roman Catholics and World War One
The First World War began in the summer of 1914, the Roman Catholic wished to reclaim their authority and religious credibility after its enormous reduction through their exposure to light of truth, now a war was organised, the Germans were funded, the allies were not.
The First World War was initiated by the puppet masters of the British, French, Italian and Russian governments through the nonsensical idea of removing the threat of the growing industrial power of the German nation, but the Germans and its allies, funded by the bankers, then defeated the British and its allies, the same bankers that had engineered the war in the first instance, so in truth they initiated the war then financed the perceived enemy.
And after this victory, this impressive achievement, the Germans then magnanimously offered armistice to Britain to end the war and continue as if they had been no attack. The malevolent British government were forced to seriously consider the offer. Until the bankers gave a counter offer, they would bring America into the war on the side of the British if they agreed to give them Palestine, the ‘Balfour declaration’. The problem for the British was they had absolutely no claim, right or excuses doing so, but when has theft ever been a problem for the British government, the second stipulation was the British remove the link to gold and silver making the English pound fiat. This appears on the surface to benefit the Rothschild's, but it was truly for the benefit of the Roman Catholic Church, they needed to protect their position within Europe.
"If people really knew the truth,” the prime minister said, “the war would be stopped tomorrow. But of course they don’t know, and can’t know.” - private conversation in December 1917 between David Lloyd George, Britain’s prime minister during much of the First World War, and CP Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian.
Vatican-Jesuit Inquisition of 1933-1945
The Rothschild's and the Roman Catholic Church organise the second world war to drain the bullion of Europe into their pockets, establish the dollar as the world currency, establish a world government, a world religion and a world power brokerage.
The Rothschild's wanted to bring communism into Europe, which almost succeeded, this would have increased the power of the state benefiting the Rothschild's and reduced the power of the Catholic Church upon them.
The Roman Catholics want to fulfil biblical prophecy from the old testament, their vehicle to achieve this is Zionism, driving the Jews to Palestine (Israel). The worldwide Zionist movement is structured on representative democratic principles, more accurately labelled a pathocracy, as all democracy truly is.
Pathocracy: a corrupt political/economic system in which capitalist psychopaths and sociopaths have seized power and rule in an insane (psychotic) manner that enhances their power and wealth while utterly destroying working class people, the natural environment and community at large.
The Catholic Church and the Zionists organised the identification of the Jews, closed the borders to Jewish immigration, and offered free passage to Palestine for any Jew who wished to go, they did not want the Jews killed as the German power was Jewish, but they wanted to relocate them, they needed the Jews to move to Palestine to fulfil their religious prophesy.
The Second World War was initiated in 1933, On January 30; the part Jewish Adolf Hitler, funded by the Zionist bankers, becomes Chancellor of Germany. He drives Jews, many of which were Communist out of Governmental positions within Germany.
In July, the Jews hold a World Conference in Amsterdam during which they demand that Hitler re-instate every Jew back to his former position, after they themselves, had engineered having had them removed in the first instance, so of course Germany refused to surrender political control to the Jews, who in truth were and continued to be in full control.
The Jews of the world now declared a holy war against Germany. “We are now engaged in a sacred conflict against the Germans and we are going to starve them into surrender, we are going to use a worldwide boycott against them that will destroy them because they are dependant on their export business to feed the people.” The Rothschild's using their propaganda media empire, began to pervert the minds of the peoples of the world and convinced them to participate in the boycott, using lies, blockades of businesses who ignored them and intimidation to achieve their ends.
Two thirds of Germany’s food supply was imported. So effective was the boycott, you could not find anything in the world with the words made in Germany. This prepared the German people for powerful change, just as the bankers had prepared the people of America with the depression, making them desperate so ready for war.
In March 1933 Franklin Roosevelt, whose mother was Jewish, came into power as president of America, in the same month, in Germany so did Adolf Hitler. Franklin Roosevelt closed the borders to all Jewish immigration the same month. Hitler was TIME Magazine's Man Of The Year in 1938 a devoutly religious Roman Catholic man, he even sung with the boy's choir of a monastery in his youth, he was part Jewish as a grandson to the Rothschild family, his grandmother had become pregnant to the Rothschild she served as house maid.
The names that financed Hitler were, Rothschild, Meyer, Baroque, Shyster, Warburg, Guggenheim , Coon and Niemeyer all Jewish banking mafia families. Between 100,000 - 150,000 Jew served in Hitler’s army, 1100 Jewish officers, 79 high level officers, and 9 generals all Jews. Hitler’s Lawyer, cook and Doctor were all Jews or half Jews, strange facts to weigh with the official story. (Jews in Hitlers Army)
Winston Churchill, who’s mother was Jewish, was married to a Rothschild and was their man in the British government, but was not in power, they organised to have him installed.
The lie of the Jewish holocaust was created after the completion of the war, the Zionist wished to fulfil prophesies of the Talmud, prophesies the Christians longed to have fulfilled also, to bring Christ back to the world, for the second time the Zionists declared millions of Jews had died in the war, just as they had after the first world war, when no one believed them, as this was a clear lie, but this time with the help of the Roman Catholic Church they made it law. There were true holocausts perpetrated, one by Churchill, the satanic bombing of Dresden, two by Truman after he refused to accept the surrender of Japan until he’d dropped atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
To this day the Christians, especially within the USA are still raising money and paying for the immigration of Jews from around the world to travel and settle in Palestine, not the Rothschild's, who remain hated by many Israelis.
Was Rex Offa Muslim?
Historical accounts show that not only was the early Muslim world aware of the British Isles, but they also had a relationship on intellectual, political, economic, and military terms. Britain's contacts and connections with Muslims are older than often thought, and yet the Muslim impact on, and contribution to Western civilisations is routinely overlooked.
The presence of Islam and Muslims in Europe can be traced as far back as the eighth century. Voluntary, documented, Muslim conversions of the population advanced by 732 AD as close as Poitiers in France.
It seems that the 'Offa' of Albien, whose origins are obscure, was born with an entirely different name, and that Offa was rather his adopted name, chosen one must presume, because it had some significance to the Albic people of the time, or as the practical evidence of coins suggests, chosen in the tradition of most converts to Islam, who choose a new name to reference their transformation of mind. If we examine the Arabic, two possibilities are available:
Affa meaning: to refrain
Awfa meaning: Omen
In Latin Offa means a 'ball of dough'.
Offa's predecessor Rex Ethelbald served for over forty years, he was defamed by the church for allowing his supporters to pursue their excessive behaviour against them, accusing him of raiding nunneries for food and for women, of course the Roman Catholics seldom tell the truth of events. He was regarded by the indigenous population with respect for having protected the weak and kept them safe as the Rex of justice for all those years, which contradicts the Roman Catholic view.
The Christian historians connect the name Offa with the Anglo-Saxon, mythical King Offa, in an attempt to establish an unfounded linage and so an historical justification for sovereignty, the corrupt AS Chronicles suggest linage without foundation, to further support lies and give false justifications. It would be logical to assume Rex Offa would not wish to adopt anything Anglo-Saxon, being neither, and the head Rex of the law system of the Albic Tribal Hidage.
Another archaeological oddity to the conventional view of history, dating back to the ninth century, is the Ballycottin Cross, found on the Southern coast of Ireland, this is also worth mentioning. It is significant because, like Offa's coins, the cross also bears an Arabic inscription. Set in glass bead is the word 'Bismillah', meaning 'A foundation for mankind', often mistranslated as ‘In the name of Allah’.
After Rex Offa’s death.
We are told Ecgfrith (Offa's son), was the first Mercian Rex to receive a Christian consecration (made sacred) as part of his suggested coronation, a coronation of what one wonders as a Rex was simply an agent of the law, again a coronation is a Roman Catholic ritual; if you consider the circumstances surrounding Offa’s son, who Offa had groomed and tutored as his successor all his life to continue in the family business of Rex work, who once in working at the task, was murdered with poison within months of Offa’s death, and a Roman Catholic subjugator, King Coenwulf, was empowered, who duly paid the Pope for his services and influence, with a massive gold tribute, extorted from the indigenous population, of 4380 gold coins, and a promise of 365 further gold coins yearly, justified in the name of the dead Offa Rex, who never paid a penny to the Pope, and attacked Christians recovering lands and property they had stolen. These documents are very suspect and most likely manufactured centuries later to be used as justification of extortions, due to the fact a victim selected their Rex, and who would select a thief to uphold the law.
Similarly the fiction of a Christian King does not hold true within the manufactured letter allegedly written in 798 to King Coenwulf of the Mercians by Pope Leo III mentions a alleged promise made in 786 by Rex Offa to send 365 mancus to Rome every year. A Mancus specifically refer to Islamic gold dinars: mancus derives from the Arabic word manqush, meaning 'struck'.
The use of the term mancus was wide spread throughout Europe between the ninth and eleventh centuries through the propagation of these coins, free of the common Christian practice of diluting the precious metal content of coins and adding cheap metals, a form of usury, this supply of pure coins ended with the destruction of the indigenous tribes of Albien around 1066 to 1086.
Only a single example of a gold Mancus minted by Rex Offa exists, the surviving western specimens of early medieval gold coins must represent only a tiny proportion of the original stock, it must be borne in mind that before the thirteenth century gold coins were extremely rare in western Europe: in England, for instance, only eight native gold pieces with meaningful inscriptions are known from c. 650 to 1066, which can be complemented by finds from the same period of half a dozen Arabic gold and perhaps ten Carolingian gold pieces or imitations of them. After 1066 substantial and regular production of gold coinage only resumed in the thirteenth century.
It seem that after Rex Offa, criminals acting in the capacity of a rex wished to establish the Christian sovereignty model, and the church corporate model, they attempted to erode the freedom Rex Offa and others had established. But failed outside of their stolen southern regions, the population continued for the most part to reject Christianity, and even evict the Christian Anglo-Saxon immigrants who viewed the indigenous population as pagans, just as Christians viewed the Muslims of Spain or the middle East as pagans. The pagans seem to have had support from the Danes in their attempts to contain the death cult of Christianity rampant within southern Albien.
The Malevolent Pope
In 1046, the forces of Holy Catholic Emperor Henry III (The Black) (1017 - 1056) invaded Italy and executed every last member of the Tusculum bloodline that could be found. Gregory VI (1045-1046) being the last fully fledged pagan Pontifex Maximus of Rome abdicated, at the Council of Sutri
that he called at the demand of Henry III.
In some of the many forged documents of the Roman Cult, the claim is made that Gregory VII (Hilderbrand) might have been the son of Gregory VI. However, this lie is likely to have been created as a story to promote Hildebrand's satanic credentials to the other demon worshipping (Jinn) noble princely families of Italy.
Following the massacre of the most senior satanic dynasty in all of Italy by Henry III, it appears Hilderbrand (1015/1028 - 1085) played an active part in communicating between the various Princely (Jinn) families fighting the various invasions of Catholic forces, Imperial Christian forces from Constantinople and Muslim forces up and down Italy.
The first and most significant innovation of Gregory VII was to call upon the fiercely daemon worshipping families in Italy to pledge in outward appearance to being Catholic.
In 1049 AD pope Alexander II (an energetic assistant to Hilderbrand), declared William the Bastard's (Guillaume le Bâtard - propagated by the Roman Catholics as William the Conqueror), marriage to the daughter of Baldwin of Flanders incestuous and among other penances he was forced to undertake was to go on a crusade, the first Crusade of the Papacy.
In 1056, Emperor Henry III died and immediately Gregory VII ordered "his" militia to capture and execute Catholic Pope Leo IX (1049-1056).
Hilderbrand Murdered the Pope Alexander II in order to obtain the Papacy in 1073, giving himself the title Gregory VII throughout being financed by Venetian Sephardic Jewish exile Pietro Leoni (1041- 1102) the wealthiest man in the world at that time, the original "Merchant of Venice" who bankrolled the formation of this transforming parasitic death cult religious movement, without this help and finance none of these corruption would have succeeded.
"Catholic" Pope Gregory VII instituted the office of Cardinal and the College of Cardinals. To reinforce his claim that the Romans were in fact the legitimate heirs of the Catholic religion (created less than 300 years earlier), he introduced the office of Cardinal whereby (as in ancient times), each (Jinn) family would be permitted to have no more than one of their family members as a Cardinal. Thereafter, the office of Pontifex Maximus would be elected from this select group. He further introduced the myth that the Latins had "always" been Catholic by introducing new forged texts such as the Dictatus papae dictated by Gregory (Hilderbrand), some of the 27 statement were:
"That for him alone is it lawful, according to the needs of the time, to make new laws, to assemble together new congregations, to make an abbey of a canonry; and, on the other hand, to divide a rich bishopric and unite the poor ones.”
"That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.”
"That his name (the Pope's) alone shall be spoken in the churches.”
"That this (the Pope) is the only name in the world.”
"That it may be permitted to him (the Pope) to depose emperors”
"That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one; and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it.”
"That he (The Pope) himself may be judged by no one.”
Gregory went even further, ensuring that Cybele now became Mary, Mother of God --and technically superior to Jesus -- as official "doctrine" of the Catholic Church, within two hundred years, it would actually become official Catholic doctrine under the control of the Roman cult.
Pope Gregory VII officially declared that "the killing of heretics is not murder" and decreed it legal for the Church and its militants to kill non-believers in Christian dogma, and introduced the dogma that during the celebration of the Eucharist, the bread and wine was transform into the cannibalistic act of eating the actual body and blood of Christ, labelled “transmutation or transubstantiation”, and had all murdered who rejected this, like Berengarius (999 - 1088) and his followers, as heretics.
He formalized the process of land and title, as a fiction placed upon allodial right, sanctioning and institutionalising historic methods of obtaining property by extortion and theft. In 1081 instituted new laws called Caesaro-Papism (“to establish here on earth a living icon of God's government in heaven.” (The Orthodox Church (revised ed.), New York: Penguin Books, pp. 50)), in which institutions of the Church control the state/government of nations. Peters pence was established whereby initially every house in France and Saxony (Germany) inhabited by a baptized person should pay an annual tribute of one denarius to the Pope, claiming it to be for “Blessed Peter” using the false letter created to deceive Pepin the Short into giving land to the Pope and lying outright claiming it to be an ancient custom first instituted by Charlamagne.
This was all preparation by the Jewish Pietro Leoni to become King of Rome, long after he was dead, in 1118, his son Pietro II Leoni and his mercenary army returned and slipped into Rome butchering the troops guarding Pope Paschal II and killing him. This time, Pietro declared himself not only the title of King of Rome, but Pontifex Maximus (Anti-Pope Callixtus) in the tradition of Gregory VII (Hildabrand) and the Roman Cult founded in large part thanks to the Pietro dynasty. Pietro II Leoni, known as Pope Callixtus died in 1130 and was succeeded by his son Anti-Pope Innocent II (1130- 1143).
In 1066 William was charged with the conquest of Albien (England), Alexander II (Hilderbrand's stooge) empowered William the Bastard with a Papal ring (A new ring is cast in gold for each Pope), the standard of St. Peter and a Papal edict to present to the English clergy, he also received a consecrated banner in support of the subjugation of Albien (this banner signifies a solemn dedicated purpose of sacred religious sanctification (the establishing of the setting aside for special use or purpose)). It may have been the fact Normandy had the most comprehensive feudal system in Europe that made William so attractive, it was the most repressive and debasing societal model ever conceived at that point, the population had rebelled in the Peasant's Revolt of 997.
William organized a council of wanton war at Lillebonne and openly began assembling an army of Mercenaries, criminals and aristocratic vermin in Normandy. Offering promises of stolen Albic lands, titles and plunder, he amassed a considerable invasion force, quotas for the supply of ships imposed on the Norman nobility he subjugated, indicate a fleet of around seven hundred and seventy ships.
The Roman Catholic historian attempt to legalise the actions of the puppet William by the distortions of history, justifying the wholesale extermination of the indigenous population without concern or regard, under the heading, the struggle for sovereignty, they see all as valid.
"Rex Harold himself, on foot, stood with his brothers near the standard in order that, so long as all shared equal danger, none could think of retreating. This same standard William sent, after his victory, to the pope; it was sumptuously embroidered with gold and precious stones, and represented the figure of a man fighting.”
Without doubt the Roman Catholic Monk who wrote on the events of the conquest fabricated and exaggerated the events beyond all recognition, in painting the victors in the best light possible, as is the Christian practice, even so, so vile an amassing of the scum of the earth makes it difficult to cover, he said of the Normans lords. “They are a race inured to war, and can hardly live without it; fierce in rushing against the enemy, and, where force fails of success, ready to use stratagem or to corrupt by bribery....they live in spacious houses with economy, envy their superiors, wish to excel their equals, and plunder their subjects.”
His description of the Christian monks and priests who functioned before the conquest: “The clergy, contented with a little confused learning, could scarcely stammer out the words of the sacraments; and a person who understood grammar was an object of wonder and astonishment. The monks mocked the rule of their order by fine vestments and the use of every kind of food.”
The Monk states the need for the invasion “They revived, by their arrival, the rule of religion which had everywhere grown lifeless” (Roman Catholic Monk William of Malmesbury, d. 1143) - written 77 years after the events of 1066.
Over the next five years until 1071 war raged throughout Albien, spreading to every region of the country, in addition foreign subjugating Kings periodically attempted to take sovereignty from William, the people of Albien fought and were worn down, the promise of easy wealth emptied Europe of every low life and thief it held, to fight against the Albic peoples.
William employed a method of harrying the population, which entailed the destruction of every building, field, animal, person and possession his mercenaries and the Christians from the southern kingdoms, now under Williams dictatorship, came across within Mercia and the other northern regions. After the land was burnt his men sowed the fields and land with salt, to stunt growth; after this treatment the land did not recover for more than 100 years, this created a powerful famine as an ally to William, who is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy (meaning the Rex's and those who defended the cause of the weak, of the legal system) in as little as four years. He fell upon the Albic of the North like a raging rabid beast, without conscience, utterly without mercy and revelling in barbarity, so that the area was depopulated and impoverished for many decades.
In 1083, Matilda his wife died, and William became even more tyrannical over the realm he brutally subjugated, with the aid of the Roman Catholic Empire.
The people suffered horrifically in a baron land of death, those that survived were starving, weak and defeated, William showed no mercy to children, women or men, this wholesale extermination continued until his death in 1087 AD.
The death toll is unknown, but the majority of the enormous population of Albien disappeared. Due to the scorched earth policy, much of the land was laid waste and depopulated.
The Doomsday book.
Prior to the Norman Conquest of 1066, within Albien land law was based on allodial title. Tribal lands were held in perpetuity by the group as a whole (see Allodial ownership) . The Domesday Book completed in 1086, called such because the writers believed, the land, possessions and people were the personal property of the sovereign until doomsday, the Christian end of the world, a catalogue and record of the great survey of the fiction established as England, being the land now subjugated to the angles. The judgement of its assessors was final, whatever the book recorded about who held the material wealth or what it was worth, was the legislation, and there was no appeal.
"Under their Norman and Angevin monarchs, Englishmen had every opportunity to grasp the maxim: 'No land without its lord.'.....the conquerors systematized them and brought every real property interest under the control of a simple formula: 'Z holds that land of the lord king.'” (P & M, I, 232, Z tenet terram illam de.....domino Rege)
The Death of William the Bastard.
Williams death was poetic in its justice, physically his body was swollen by several years of excessive eating and drinking, during a campaigns against the French kings, while fighting at the Battle of Mantes, he was thrown against the pommel of his saddle so violently that his intestines burst. Five weeks later - on September 9, 1087 he died, on his death bed he made his confession:
"I treated the native inhabitants of the kingdom with unreasonable severity, cruelly oppressed high and low, unjustly disinherited many, and caused the death of thousands by starvation and war, especially in Yorkshire....In mad fury I descended on the people of the north like a raging lion, and ordered that their homes and crops with all their equipment and furnishings should be burnt at once and their great flocks and herds of sheep and cattle slaughtered everywhere. So I chastised a great multitude of men and women with the lash of starvation and, alas! was the cruel murderer of many thousands, both young and old, of this fair people.”
When William died the wealthier in attendance immediately left, anxious to protect their property now that their king was dead. Those who stayed behind, says Orderic, “seized the arms, vessels, clothing, linen, and all the royal furnishings, and hurried away leaving the king's body almost naked on the floor of the house.”
It was determined that the body would be taken to Caen and buried in the church of St. Stephen. But all the royal dependants having left, there was no one to make preparations. It fell to a common knight to make the funeral arrangements and have the body conveyed down the Seine and then overland to Caen. There, as the abbot and his monks came to meet the bier, a fire broke out, destroying the greater part of the town. All rushed to extinguish it, leaving only the monks to complete the service.
William was eulogized before the assembled bishops and abbots of Normandy, and a request made that, if ever he had done wrong, he was to be forgiven. Incredibly, someone loudly proclaimed that the church had been built on land forcibly acquired from his father when William was duke. "Therefore I lay claim to this land, and openly demand it, forbidding in God's name that the body of this robber be covered by earth that is mine or buried in my inheritance." The man was compensated sixty shillings for the place of burial.
The monk of Caen writes that William was “great in body and strong, tall in stature but not ungainly.” When it came time to bury the heavy body, it was discovered that the stone sarcophagus had been made too short. There was an attempt to force the corpse and, says Orderic, “the swollen bowels burst, and an intolerable stench assailed the nostrils of the by-standers and the whole crowd.” Even the frankincense and spices of the censers was not enough to mask the smell, and the rites were hurriedly concluded.
William the Bastard (Conqueror) was named as man of the millennium on 24th December 1998 by the now late Cardinal Basil Hume, head of the Roman Catholic Church in England, which was later confirmed by the Vatican.
Normans established feudal system
In 847 an edict given at Mersen contained the following clause: “Every free man shall be allowed to select for himself a lord, either the king or one of the king’s vassals; and no vassal of the crown shall be obliged to follow the king to war, except against foreign enemies” This is a statement of enslavement, every free man must have an owner, every owner is owned by the King, this required the giving of an oath of fealty, giving someone ownership of yourself. Under the sovereign you could be released from your bond, but not from the king.
"If anyone shall wish to leave his lord (seniorem,) and is able to prove against him one of these crimes, that is, in the first place, if the lord has wished to reduce him unjustly into servitude; in the second place, if he has taken counsel against his life ; in the third place if the lord has committed adultery with the wife of his vassal, in the fourth place if he has wilfully attacked him with a drawn sword ; in the fifth place, if the lord has been able to bring defence to his vassal after he has commended his hands to him, and has not done so ; it is allowed to the vassal to leave him. If the lord has perpetrated anything against the vassal in these five points it is allowed the vassal to leave him.” (CAPITULARY CONCERNING FREEMEN AND VASSALS, 816AD - M.G.LL,I,196.Latin.)
Normandy Under the Carolingian dynasty property was of two kinds; the holders of allodial lands, enjoyed them absolutely and independently. On the other hand, benefices or fiefs (from the Anglo-Saxon feof, cattle, money) were granted by a lord to a person who, in return for that grant, and for the protection it insured on the part of the baron, obliged himself to do military service, to render pecuniary assistance. Now it would frequently happen that the owner of allodial property, isolated amongst all his independence, found it impossible to live securely and comfortably in the vicinity of barons stronger or more powerful than himself. He would then select one of these barons or feudal lords, recommend himself to him, as the saying was, make over to him by a kind of feigned cession (to yield) his allodial property, and then receive it back again as a benefice, together with all the duties, obligations, and burdens belonging to it. As a matter of course, beneficiary property soon formed the rule, except south of the Loire, and there was no landed property which did not depend upon another property, no man who was not the vassal or dependent of another man. The hereditary transmission of landed property and of all charges, offices, and positions of trust was sanctioned by the edict of Kiersy (877).
We thus see that every great lord or landowner, enjoying the same rights and privileges as the king himself, there existed throughout the length and breadth of France as many sovereigns as there were dukes, counts, viscounts, &c. When Hugues Capet came to the throne, he found a hundred and fifty barons owning the right of legislating, coining, administering justice, making war, and concluding treaties with their neighbors. The king, therefore, had no real power as such, but only so far as he possessed some important fief, whether dukedom or count-ship.
After 1086 and the completion of the genocide of William the Bastard, the first ownership of land based on the fiction of estate, existed in Albien, possibly with the exception of the Christian counties who may have had some form of land ownership in place. They established a state, or crown corporation as owner, and feudal lords as tenants paying rent. This means the land and the slave upon it are always the property of the corporation, all that is bought and sold by the slaves are the lease hold of the property from the corporate state, which itself would become just a subsidiary of the Church.
"Urged by faith, we are obliged to believe and to maintain that the Church is one.....proclaims: 'One is my dove, my perfect one. She is the only one, the chosen of her who bore her'.....clearly that spiritual power surpasses in dignity and in nobility any temporal power whatever.....For with truth as our witness, it belongs to spiritual power to establish the terrestrial power.....Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.” (Boniface VIII: THE BULL UNAM SANCTAM , 1302)
William the Bastard brought with him The Jews of Europe “a refined system of commercial law: their own form of commerce and a system of rules to facilitate and govern it. These rules made their way into the developing structure of English Law....Several elements of historical Jewish legal practice have been integrated into the English legal system. Notable among these is the written credit agreement - shetar, or starr, as it appears in English documents. The basis of the shetar, or "Jewish Gage," was a lien on all property...” (The Shetar's Effect on English Law)
However under common law this had no foundation or justification, common law is clear:
From the Doomsday book, it has tentatively been estimated there were between 1¼ and 2 million people, including the large influx of Europeans eager to subjugate and exploit the survivors of the extermination. The population distribution was, more than 10 people per square mile in the southern counties, while the northern counties including Wales had a density of less than 3 people per square mile.
King Stephen of Blois 1096 – 1154 reigned from 1135 till 1141:
"When King Stephen came to England he held his council at Oxford, and there he took Roger, bishop of Salisbury, and Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, and the chancellor Roger, his nephews, and put them all in prison till they surrendered their castles. When the traitors understood that he was a mild man, and gentle and good, and did not exact the full penalties of the law, they perpetrated every enormity. They had done him homage, and sworn oaths, but they kept no pledge; all of them were perjured and their pledges nullified, for every powerful man built his castles and held them against him and they filled the country full of castles.
They oppressed the wretched people of the country severely with castle-building. When the castles were built, they filled them with devils and wicked men. Then, both by night and day they took those people that they thought had any goods - men and women - and put them in prison and tortured them with indescribable torture to extort gold and silver - for no martyrs were ever so tortured as they were. They were hung by the thumbs or by the head, and corselets were hung on their feet. Knotted ropes were put round their heads and twisted till they penetrated to the brains.
They put them in prisons where there were adders and snakes and toads, and killed them like that. Some they put in a 'torture-chamber' - that is in a chest that was short, narrow and shallow, and they put sharp stones in it and pressed the man in it so that he had all his limbs broken. In many of the castles was a 'noose-and-trap' - consisting of chains of such a kind that two or three men had enough to do to carry one. It was so made that it was fastened to a beam, and they used to put a sharp iron around the man's throat and his neck, so that he could not in any direction either sit or lie or sleep, but had to carry all that iron. Many thousands they killed by starvation.
I have neither the ability nor the power to tell all the horrors nor all the torments they inflicted upon wretched people in this country; and that lasted the nineteen years while Stephen was king, and it was always going from bad to worse. They levied taxes on the villages every so often, and called it' 'protection money'. When the wretched people had no more to give, they robbed and burned the villages, so that you could easily go a whole day's journey and never find anyone occupying a village, nor land tilled. Then corn was dear, and meat and butter and cheese, because there was none in the country. Wretched people died of starvation; some lived by begging for alms, who had once been rich men; some fled the country.
There had never been till then greater misery in the country, nor had heathens ever done worse than they did. For contrary to custom, they respected neither church nor churchyard, but took all the property that was inside, and then burnt the church and everything together. Neither did they respect bishops' land nor abbots' nor priests', but robbed monks and clerics, and everyone robbed somebody else if he had the greater power. If two or three men came riding to a village, all the villagers fled from them; they expected they would be robbers.
The bishops and learned men were always excommunicating them, but they thought nothing of it, because they were all utterly accursed and perjured and doomed to perdition.” This account is taken from Whitelock, Dorothy (translator) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1961); Davis H.W.C. (ed.), Medieval England (1928).
After the great success of the first crusade against Albien, in 1085 the Roman Catholic King Alfonso VI of Castile captured the Muslim city of Toledo murdering all its inhabitants, including women and children, upon the direct orders of Pope Gregory VII given before his murder in 1084. The possessions acquired by this genecide of the Muslim people by the church revealed a far more advanced culture, rich in knowledge, technologies and wealth compared to the enforced Stone Age of Europe imposed by the Roman Catholic Church and its governing systems. Rumours spread across the courts of Europe of the fabulous wealth held by the Muslims, thereby creating desires among Roman Catholic leaders to ransack their lands.
In 1084 King Henry IV formed a large coalition against the Holy Roman Empire, a massive force of 36,000 finally broke the siege of Roman Cult Leader Pope Gregory VII in Rome who had been protected by the mercenary army of Basque native Robert Borja (the Guiscard--which means "sly, crafty"). Robert Borja managed to escape with some of his men, but Pope Gregory VII (Hilderbrand was named "The False Monk") was not so lucky and was promptly tried, excommunicated and executed as a heretic of the Catholic Church. However, the diplomatic innovations and restructuring of satanic beliefs and human sacrifice into a parasitic "catholic" (meaning - 'involving all') belief system would outlast him. His legacy is the Roman Catholic Death Cult still in business to this day.
The Anti-Pope doctrine
Brilliantly using the Catholic doctrine against itself, by 1095 antipope Urban II (1035 – 1099) had amassed a large enough rag-tag army to begin their march eastward into the ancient territories of the Holy Roman Empire.
By 1096, Urban and his army had beseiged and overwhelmed Belgrade, slaughtering hundreds of thousands of innocent Christians along the way in arguably one of the greatest bloodbaths in history. The sheer terror his army wrought was enough to empty towns in his way so that in the same year (1096), the heavily fortified Constantinople fell relatively easily. Urban immediately ordered the Imperial Archives to be removed back to his Italian base with much of Constantinople burned. In all Urban's army slaughtered over 50,000 people in Constantinople alone.
Strengthened by his success, Urban now moved on to the capture of Jerusalem. Over confident, he moved across Turkey, Syria and down to Antioch killing tens of thousands more Christians along the way. However, the Muslims retaliated and Urban found himself besieged in Antioch in 1098, cut off from the rest of his army. He was caught and beheaded by the Muslims at the end of the seige in 1099. In retaliation, his son antipope Theodoric rallied the army and took Jerusalem in the same year.
Concordat of Worms
"I, bishop Calixtus (Died 1124), servant of the servants of God (Daemon), do grant to thee beloved son, Henry-by the grace of God (Daemon) august emperor of the Romans-that the elections of the bishops and abbots of the German kingdom, who belong to the kingdom, shall take place in thy presence, without simony and without any violence; so that if any discord shall arise between the parties concerned, thou, by the counsel or judgement of the metropolitan and the co-provincials, may'st give consent and aid to the party which has the more right. The one elected, moreover, without any exaction may receive the regalia from thee through the lance, and shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should. Be he who is consecrated in the other parts of the empire (i.e. Burgundy and Italy) shall, within six months, and without any exaction, receive the regalia from thee through the lance, and shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should. Excepting all things which are known to belong to the Roman church. Concerning matters, however, in which thou dost make complaint to me, and dost demand aid-1, according to the duty of my office, will furnish aid to thee. I give unto thee true peace, and to all who are or have been on thy side in the time of this discord.” Daemon means 'a god', this death cult say God in the meaning of Daemon.
In 1170 a Welsh Prince named Madog left his homeland with his supporters and set sail headed for America, to establish a World counterforce to this Christian Death Cult but which in the centuries that have followed have been hunted down to near extinction by the deliberate European and American extermination of indigenous peoples on every continent on Earth.
Three Welsh words, “budro” “fudron” “Cristnogion”, and which translate into “Dirty Filthy Christians” and were found in an ancient stone grave site in the Smoky Mountains, in 1799, where 8 skeletons encased in brass armor bearing the Welsh coat of arms were discovered having these three words inscribed upon them.
The so-called consensual history is a finely woven magic fabric of intricate lies about events predating the 16th Century. There is not a single piece of firm written evidence or artifact that could be reliably and independently traced back earlier than the 11th Century. The archaeological, dendrochronological, paleographical and carbon methods of dating of ancient courses are both non-exact and contradictory. (Ref: “Dirty, Filthy, Christians”: Treatise On The Most Dangerous Death Cult In Human History. By David L Booth)
King John and the transfer of power
The feudal system was establish, with William and his descendant's as owner of all, above all laws, establishing their dictates as the law of the land without opposition, throughout Albien, its name was revised to England, its indigenous peoples enslaved, and held in poverty and ignorance.
As early as 1191 the preparations to take control of England by the Papacy were under way, the city of London secured recognition of the Commune (a municipal corporation or organisation) from Prince John and other magnates. Two years later, the oath of the Commune provides the first tentative evidence for the Corporation of London.
The feudal structure did not alter until King John (1167-1216), after losing his sovereignty over Normandy and all other interests outside of England, as a result, they say, of having kidnapped Isabella of Angoulême from her fiancé, a twelve year old child who he fathered five children with; this act was used as excuse by the king of France to seize his neighbours lands. This is unlikely, the respect of women had never been of high importance to Christians of old.
John invoked mortmain so no one could pass land on to the church or anyone else without the king’s permission, historians have masked this fact deliberately
The law of Mortmain also called the Statute De Religiosis, the original concepts of the Statute of Mortmain demonstrated the intention of a King to prevent the Church from acquiring lands in such a away that the king and other principle lords lost feudal services and dues.
A corporation, like the church could easily avoid rendering customary feudal services and payments. A corporation never rides out fully armed and prepared for battle in the service of an overlord. A corporation, civil or ecclesiastical, never dies intestate; its lands never escheat to an overlord. A corporation is never a minor heir; its lands are never administered by an overlord as a ward-ship. Unlike an individual, a corporation never seeks permission – or pays for permission – to marry. A corporation never dies; it never pays relief like the heir who seeks thus to reconstruct (relever) his ancestor's feudal contract with an overlord. So corporations results in the overlord, or king losing out substantially in revenues, in an ever escalating manor.
So if lands fell into the hands of a corporation without this statute, it was as if they were held in the hands of a dead man, the wealth of the lands remained with the dead man or corporation.
The Statute of Mortmain served, then, the interests of the king fully as much as those of the barons. Henceforth, while the Statute was enforced, no corporation, civil or ecclesiastical, could hold land in England except under condition of a grant made prior to the Statute. This was the reason the Roman Catholics worked against John, having his land holding strip from him, the invoking of Mortmain against them stopped expansion.
Mortmain (dead hand) as a legal term means ownership of real property by a corporation or legal institution that can be transferred or sold in perpetuity.
Innocent III then began a long quarrel with John, probably the most powerful pope of medieval Christendom, the Pope had Johns lands stolen from him in France, and worked to remove his authority within England.
After this great loss John's new troubles began in the course of electing an archbishop of Canterbury to succeed Hubert Walter, who died on July 13th 1205. “The monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, decided to assert an exclusive right to choose the next archbishop, although the practice had been to allow the bishops of the province of Canterbury to participate in an election. Without royal permission and in a hasty secret caucus, the monks chose Reginald, their superior, who was quietly dispatched to Rome to receive papal confirmation. But Reginald's vanity was too much for him; he boasted along the way. The news soon came back to John, who flew into a rage, declaring the election of Reginald void, and ordered the monks of Canterbury to elect a royal favourite, John de Grey, bishop of Norwich. The monks obeyed, the suffragan bishops concurred, and John then invested his own candidate- who also set out to Rome!
Confronted by the rival candidates, Innocent III set aside both elections. He then asked the monks of Canterbury to send him a delegation, and he instructed the latter to elect Stephen Langton (1150-1228), an eminent English cardinal at the Roman curia. But John refused to accept the election of Langton; he confiscated the property of the archbishopric of Canterbury, expelled the monks of Christ Church, defied Innocent III, and forced Langton into exile. When Innocent III ordered John to accept Langton, threatening an interdict if John refused longer to obey, John replied that an interdict would lead him to expel the clergy from the realm and that he would put out the eyes and cut off the noses of all Romans whom he might find within the borders of England.
Nevertheless, the interdict followed (1208) and lasted four years before John capitulated. All church services were forbidden; the bells were silent. John himself was excommunicated but managed for a time to withstand this blow. As a final measure the pope declared John deposed from the kingship, absolved all of his subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and ordered Philip of France to conquer England and to place his son, Louis, on the throne. Philip willingly planned a campaign.
Suddenly and characteristically, John gave up completely and negotiated a reconciliation with Rome through the papal legate, Pandulph. He agreed to accept Langton as archbishop of Canterbury; he agreed to recall the exiled clergy and to restore Church property; he even agreed to make all of England and Ireland a fief of the papacy, paying an annual tribute of one thousand marks sterling.....the pope was now his overlord and zealous in his concern about his vassal's interests.
So reluctantly John had accepted Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury and signed the treaty of Verona in 1213, knowing full well that the new archbishop was in control of the country and truly ‘ruled’.
The contract drawn up between the papacy and King John could be dissolved by Johns descendant's, this posed a problem for the Pope. The Pope had to remove the authority of the King from making law, and secondly had to make the King be held to the sort of law that suited the papacy. The Roman Catholic religious order of the Knights Templar had established the Temple Bar on Chancery Lane in 1185, this was the founding of Roman law in England, this was the law the papacy wished to establish.
This required the seeds of dissent being sown within the baronage of England. "The revolt which preceded the granting of Magna Carta built up slowly over several months, and the rebels took up arms only after John had failed three times to discuss with the leaders their requests for reassurance about their customary rights.”
The Magna Carta was written by Stephen Langton the leader of the rebellion, who was the archbishop of Canterbury. “In the negotiations which led to the formulation of Magna Carta, Stephen Langton became a key figure....The result was a document known as the Articles of the Barons.”
"Magna Carta established a principle which the English people invoked whenever they felt that the king was acting arbitrarily.” (Magna Carta Commemoration Essays, p.79)
The Pope wanted to appear on the side of the King, so excommunicated the Barons and assured the King his oaths to them could be disregarded, Stephen Langton refused to publish the excommunication, the Pope suspended him from all ecclesiastical functions, although Stephen appealed to him in person. He was released from suspension the following spring on condition that he kept out of England until peace was restored and he remained abroad till May 1218.
"Henry III, John's son and successor, reissued the Charter three times and confirmed the issue of 1225 on three occasions. Edward I, following Henry III, confirmed the Carter three times, eventually it was confirmed at least thirty times before the close of the middle ages....each confirmation of the Charter became a solemn assurance....the king, like all of his subjects, was under the law.” (Magna Carta and Common Law, C H McIlwain. pp. 124-79. S. C., pp. 490-93 S & M, pp. 164-65; and see Statutes of the Realm. I, 123)
Charter: A written grant from the sovereign power of a country conferring certain rights and privileges on a person or a corporation, also: A document incorporating an institution and specifying its rights; includes the articles of incorporation and the certificate of incorporation. (person originates from the establishment of the Temple Bar 1185, in Latin its meaning is 'Actor's mask')
As you can see a charter is a grant that does not apply to men, women and children it applies to ‘persons’, a person is a legal fiction, a rather significant legal fiction that is still in use today, a corporate person, tricks you into thinking of a living sentient living being, but that's not a legal person, a common law living human being is the last thing they want to deal with in court, as under common law they can not apply legislation upon them, hence the need for establishing you as the head of your personal corporation within court.
Now the papacy could hold the king and his descendant's to the contract, next they needed to consolidate the power over the country, they needed to establish an administrative centre to run their corporation.
Following the death of king John in 1216, his son aged 9 became king, Henry's regents, headed by William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, who was supported by and worked closely with Guala, the papal legate, immediately declared their intention to rule by Magna Carta, this was also an opportunity to continue the work to establish the Crown Corporation within London.
The Crown Corporation
In 1223 Stephen Langton again appeared as the leader and spokesman of the Barons, who demanded that King Henry III confirm the Magna Carta.
At the age of 25 (1232) Henry assumed full authority, a devout Roman Catholic, the church used his devotion to drain the wealth of England, papal legates, papal nuncios, papal tax collectors, and canon law from Rome were supported by Henry III. Henry turned to Rome for guidance, he contributed heavily to the building of a great Abbey, church and chapter house at Westminster. The Roman Catholic church encourage Henry to invade Sicily, where they said he could make his son Edmund ruler. Pope Alexander IV wished Henry III to send a military force to Sicily, to usurp power and to repay the outstanding debts owed the Pope of 135,541 marks by the Sicilians, a tremendous sum, that he had already incurred in Sicilian affairs, as loan sharking was a major aspect of the churches business interests. Henry agreed to these terms, even though a failure to pay these debts would result in excommunication and the laying of an interdict on England. This military adventure failed, this however did not release Henry from his obligation to repay the debts owed to the Vatican now transferred onto Henry.
Due to the burden and manor in acquiring these debts, in 1258 seven leading barons forced Henry to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, the provisions forced Henry to accept a new form of government in which power was placed in the hands of a council of twenty four members, effectively removed the absolutist Norman monarchy, were he was forced to call the first "parliament" in 1264, forced by his dependence upon his Barons for money, to conduct government and to meet his commitments to the papacy for agreed monies on the Sicilian affair.
Now the Crown was shared authority, no longer just the king, but the parliament together, established as a primitive corporation, on which the papacy could build.
Acts of the Corporation of London are authenticated by the City or Common Seal which since the 13th century has carried the legend 'Sigillum Baronum Londiniarum' (Seal of the Barons of London).
Henry designated Westminster as the fixed seat of power in England.
The city of London became a sovereign state in 1694 when King William III of Orange privatized and granted the Charter of the Bank of England.
The conclusion of the Charter 1694 granting these titles to the shareholders. "..granted by the said Act of Parliament, or any Part thereof, so long as they respectively shall have any such Part, Share, or Interest therein, shall be, and be called one Body Politick and Corporate, of themselves, in Deed and in Name, by the Name of The Governor and Company of the Bank of England” (The Charter of the Bank of England 1694)
This grants the Corporation of London an ability to alter or amend its constitution, and function as a body politick (act upon a people considered as a collective unit) when it benefits the Corporation of London and City of London to do so, under charters of Edward III (1341) and Richard II (1377 and 1383) and William III (1694).
"Nowadays, with its Lord Mayor, its Beadles, Sheriffs and Aldermen, its separate police force and its select electorate of freemen and liverymen, the City of London is an anachronism of the worst kind. The Corporation, which runs the City like a one-party mini-state, is an unreconstructed old boys' network whose medievalist pageantry camouflages the very real power and wealth which it holds."
It runs its own police force, the City of London Police, the Central Criminal Court (the "Old Bailey") and the Barbican Arts Centre as well as maintaining five bridges across the River Thames (Blackfriars, Southwark, London, Tower and, since 2002, the Millennium Bridge), it houses Fleet Street’s newspaper and publishing monopolies. It is also the headquarters for worldwide English Freemasonry and headquarters for the worldwide money cartel know as the Crown. It has its own courts, its own laws, its own flag, and it pays no taxes. The Crown that all MPs, police officers, and civil servants swear allegiance too is the private corporate city state of London, The Crown.
The Crown Corporation holds the title to worldwide Crown land in Crown colonies like Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. The British Parliament and the British Prime Minister serve as a public front for these ruling crown families, established by the Roman Catholic Church and the English Monarchy, who would logically be the main share holders and the Rothschild's acquired control of the 'public shares', they do not wish anyone to know who the owners of the Crown corporation are, and interestingly that is one question that is forbidden to ever be raised in the houses of parliament, or the house of Lords.
Back to the Malevolent Pope 1049
The only logical reason Pope Alexander II would have wished to destroy the entire population of Mercia, Wales, Northumbria, and the other northern regions, would have been if they were using the Muslim models which stand in opposition to the sovereign models, a person having enjoyed the freedom of these models of society would never consent to the insanity of the ignorance and subjugation of the death cult of the Roman Catholic enslavement.
This is historically demonstrated by the Muslims within the Iberian region, as they had to ultimately leave their ancestral homes, their businesses, their heritage, and travel into a land they did not know, to escape the Roman Catholic persecutions, and enslavement both physical and mental.
The models are explained within these four essays:
The frankpledge was installed within the southern counties and some other areas, but would only function with a population who understood they were slaves, this limited its range.
In reference to our modern legal system; bail, release, and pledging for another's appearance, as well as duty to inform on a neighbour, all descend from the frankpledge.
True frankpledge never existed in the six northern counties of England or in Cheshire, Shropshire, Herefordshire, or Wales. (Ref:A. Crowley , ‘The Later History of Frankpledge’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 48 ( 1975 ))
Under the Roman Catholic legal system introduced in to Albien after 1066, property was of far greater value than a human life from the indigenous population.
G.G Coulton has described an incident recorded on the Northumberland assize rolls for 1255. “A certain 'foreigner', Gilbert of Niddesdale, met a hermit on the moors of Northumberland, 'beat him and wounded him and left him for dead, and stole his garments and one penny, and fled away.' Gilbert was caught. The hermit asked for his stolen penny. But he was told to observe the custom of the country: to recover his stolen chattels a man must behead the thief with his own hands. Determined to regain his penny, the hermit mustered enough strength to get it by the custom of the country”
"The law of medieval England was not much influenced by Christian doctrine of the duty of forgiveness and turning the other cheek. It assumed that a deliberate wrong would be resented, and in the Middle Ages, at least, it held to a doctrine of strict liability for intentional or unintentional injury. It assumed that the desire for vengeance was natural and proper.” (Arthur R Hogue. Origins of the Common Law. p.147)
After the conquest, upon the poor of conquered Britain the legal system was described as, “the most efficient police system in Western Europe” (Bryce Lyon, Constituional and legal History of Medieval England (New York 1960),p.197)
Legislative law in England was formalised by the Roman Catholic knights templar (Knights of the Military Order of the Temple of Solomon) established the Temple bar; initially constructing a building on what is now Chancery Lane , a round church patterned on the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. An inscription on the Round recorded that it was consecrated by the Patriarch Heraclius on 10 February 1185, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is thought that King Henry II was also present on that day, one of a line of monarchs installed and instructed by the Roman Catholic Church from its inception to its removal. (see Law of Men. (The First Crusade))
In the 12th Century, Nicholas Sheakspeare the true "Father of English" also known as Pope Adrian IV-- the first and only English Pope of the Catholic Church was instrumental with King Henry II in the formation of a uniquely "English" brand of hybrid Anglaisé-Latin to form the legal framework of English.
In the 13th Century, individuals such as Pope Innocent IV, Francis of Assisi and Thomas Acquinas were key in the establishment of the backbone of the modern legal system from Venetian maritime law through the creation of even more corrupted Latin words and even hybrid English back to Latin.
Company: From 13th Century Latin companio meaning "a body of (normally) Jewish servants bonded to a vassal of the Vatican under the rules of SERVI CAMERAE REGIS and USURY".
HOLY SEE: The common English name of the highest legal PERSONALITY under ROMAN LAW and COMMON LAW being the SEDES SACRORUM (Latin Sedes for seat/see, Sacrorum for holy/ holy right) otherwise known as Santa Sede and the "SS." founded in the 13th Century by AntiPope Innocent IV and Venetian Doge Giovanni (a.k.a. Francis of Assisi). Under both ROMAN LAW and COMMON LAW, all PERSONALITIES are "owned" by the Holy See, also commonly known as the VATICAN: which encompasses the legal apparatus by which the ROMAN CULT Pope and its Curia of Bishops claim SOVEREIGNTY over the whole Earth.
HUMAN BEING: From Latin Humanus= “a lesser/inferior man or woman defined legally as an animal and/or monster as distinct from the ancient (pre Vatican) Roman term homo = man ". A key rule of Law from the 14th Century describing a fundamental legal fiction --that is the notion of an inferior man or woman as an animal (as defined by Papal Decree) and therefore not subject to the laws of free men, but the laws of property. The decision to create a 2nd word for Homo (man), denoting an inferior "animal" man was crucial to the legal implementation of the Vatican global slave trade from the 14th Century--to overcome the questions of legality and morality of the Vatican slave trade. Therefore, unbaptized indigenous populations were legally defined as "humans" --therefore animals. Legally, the name of a human must always be in CAPITALS to identify that individual as property as distinct from a free man.
JUSTICE: From 13th Century Latin justus Old English justice, Old French justise meaning “LAWS, RIGHT” of LAW- the exercise of legal authority in vindication of ancient Imperial (Roman) rights and precepts by assigning reward or punishment". The word was formed upon the claims of the Roman Cult Popes to have in their possession "untampered" ancient legal documents from Constantinople such as the Codex Justinian and earlier which (apart from several extraordinary anomolies) also claimed the Catholic Church to be "above the law"--hence the ultimate origin of the word Justice = forged laws of Justin and Emperors = Church above the law. The first and foremost pledge of all senior legal representatives of the "Justice" systems in Western christian nations is not to impart fair and true legal judgment, but to protect the Roman Cult from being held accountable for their actions = fundamental meaning of Justice.
LAW/LAWS: From 3rd Century BCE Latin lāres = "a group ancient Roman deities (gods) defining localized activities, customs and practices accumulated over time including (but not limited to) home, family, the state, the sea, land and travel". 12th Century Old English lārs = "a collection of common doctrines, customs and practices accumulated over time; and the teaching of such customs", later 16th Century Middle English lore/law = "A collection of rules (doctrines), customs and practices (accumulated over time) enjoining or prohibiting certain action; also the individual rules themselves ". Contrary to misleading information, the Ancient Roman Legal System never considered the customs of lāres as being other than religious doctrine and ancient superstitions (witchcraft). Instead, the Roman Empire was founded on lēx/lēgis (statutes) and later (under Constantine) ilex (universal statutes). The modern western legal systems of nations are therefore based on inferior lāres --religious doctrines and concepts designed by the Roman Cult--while the Roman Cult reserved the formal structure of superior lēx/lēgis in the form of covenants and agreements such as Concordats, Official Church Councils and Papa; Bulls.
MARITIME: From 13th Century Latin maritimeo/maritimus = "The mariner fleet of the Sea (Holy See) to be feared". From earlier Latin maris "sea" and timeo "to fear, be afraid, dread". From 16th Century English/French "Of the (Holy) Sea".
MONEY: From 13th Century Latin moneta meaning "the precious gift (coinage) of/to Cybele". Originally from pre 3rd Century CE Latin monera meaning "a warning, a reminder" also applied to the geese of the temple to Juno (another name for Cybele-Queen of Heaven) and to the goddess Juno herself. Some of the most valuable minted coins in Rome were in honor to Juno Moneta--who warned and "saved Rome from a Carthaginian attack". In the 19th Century, the original meaning of money being based on "precious metals" was depreciated with the meaning "A currency (including paper) maintained by a STATE which can guarantee its value".
NEGLIGENCE: From 13th Century Latin negligens = "(Belonging to) a particular system of faith that denies the primacy of the scriptures (of the Roman Cult) and official doctrines of the Church ". From ancient Latin nego="to deny", liber/li="book" and gens="clan, people, nation, tribe". By the 16th Century, the word was legally enhanced to include "carelessness, without due attention" and by the 18th Century to mean "The tort whereby a duty of reasonable care was breached, causing damage: any conduct short of intentional or reckless action that falls below the legal standard for preventing unreasonable injury".
PERSON: From 13th Century Latin persona = “the (fictional actors mask) legal character representing an individual HUMAN BEING (animal) or CORPORATION by CONSENT". Person is a key rule of Law describing a fundamental legal fiction --that is any individual or formal organization subject to the Curia (courts) or lesser courts. Providing consent is given without duress, legally an individual, a corporation and even a nation may be considered a PERSON and therefore subject to the principles of common law and commercial (maritime) law of the Vatican/Roman Cult. Legally, the name assigned to a Person must always be in CAPITALS to distinguish a "person" from a free man or free society.
RIGHT: From 11th Century Latin ritus=" correct usage, morally correct rule, correct ceremony". A deliberate corruption of the ancient Latin rectus ='"straight, correct". Later used to also deliberately corrupt ancient pre 8th Century Irish recht, English riht and German reht all meaning "just law, righteous, wise".
The Roman Catholics had installed a two tier legal system, one law for the slaves and another law for the freemen, this is made clear in Sir Edward Coke's 'First Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England or Commentarie upon Littleton' (first published in 1628, 19th ed. By Charles Butler, 1832, 58a.) "This court is of two natures. The first is by the common law, and is called a court Baron, as some have said, for that is the free-holders or freemans court (for Barons so in a sense signifies freemen), and of that court the freeholders being suitors be judges, and this maybe kept from three weekes to three weekes. The second is a customary court, and that doth concern copiholders, and therein the lord or his steward is the judge.....And when the court baron is of this double nature, the court roll containeth as well matters appertaining to the customary court, as to the court baron.”
To understand the reality of this slave system, within the counties the smaller regions were called hundreds, each hundred contained a number of villages, "of the estimated 628 hundreds in England, by the end of the thirteenth century 358 had fallen into private hands as franchises or 'liberties' obtained by royal grant as well as by usurpation and prescription, and 270 hundreds were still controlled by the crown. Thus the fees and fines extorted from the hundred courts, the profits of justice, were shared by the king and local officials.”(O.O.T.C.L)
By the thirteenth century the population had not recovered greatly numbering around 2 million.
To this day the people of Albien are slaves, we still suffer under the same constrictive controls, the minds of the people have been subjugated so deeply with the passage of almost a thousands years, they fail to comprehend their condition.
The feudal system has altered over time, but still functions, the rights of allodial ownership have continued to be denied to us, and the Roman Catholic Crown still pulls the strings behind a wall of deceit. Our legal system has been replaced with corporate and admiralty Law, while common law is denied us, our possessions held within a fiction and leased back to us through taxation, our physical bodies the property of the Crown Corporation through the registration of live birth, enslaving us to the Christian death cult society, are labour represented by a certificate of debt, all intrinsic value removed, we work for a fiction, we own a fiction, we are subject to the fictions of the sovereign.
They condition and indoctrinate the population to not only be compliant to their dictates, but to be so subjugated, they enthusiastically force those around them to be just as compliant.
They have removed the coinage monetary system, and replaced it with a fiat paper/digital monetary system, resulting in a constant defrauding of the people, taxes expand while services decline, fiat money values constantly erode, so the burden builds, economically enslaved, mentally subjugated, socially isolated; has the Roman Catholic assault ever reduced? Now in-conjunction with the Zionist assault.
They educate only enough to allow function, they do not want the bulk of the people to see things clearly, a developed mind is a dangerous tool against an establishment of liars, thieves and subjugators, a criminal body in control of a dullard population.
|God And Allah|
|The Meaning Of Life|
|Freedom Means Responsibility|
|This Earth Is Precious|
|The Five Pillows Of Islam.|
|The Blinding Light Of Islam Extinguished.|
|Islam Demands Reason.|
|Life After Death. Part One. Jahannam|
|Life After Death part two. Jannah|
|The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly.|
|The HIV-AIDS Question.|
|INDUCTION AND EXTREME OATH OF THE JESUITS|
|A Debate On Money.|
|The Advent Of The Muslims.|
|Islam A Challenge To Religion.|
|The Three Given Keys Of Existence.|
|The Heavens The Earth And The Qur’an.|
|The Engines of Creation.|
|A Dying Ember|
|Melded Multiple Infinities.|
|A Sadness Within Me.|
|The Dichotomy of humanity; the singular unity of being both Mortal and Immortal.|
|The purpose of humanities creation.|
|Interface With Islam|
|The potentials of Death.|
|Why the banks are failing.|
|The Subjugated Mind.|
|THE BEGINNING OF THE LIE|
|CHAPTER 6 from the book "DESCENT into SLAVERY”|
|Theft: Punishment or Relief|
|The Fractional Reserve Banking System.|
|COSMOS WITHOUT GRAVITATION|
|The Symbols of Religion.|
|The Big Bang, a BIG lie.|
|The formation of a galaxy, evolving a universe.|
|Our Conscious Mind As An Electromagnetic Field|
|THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE|
|Hadith (part one).|
|Hadith Continued (part two).|
|Confessions Of English Spy Who Helped create Wahhabism.|
|Law of Men. (The First Crusade)|
|Rex Offa of Albien (Britain)|
|Constitution of Allah. Transfinite Consciousness.|
|THE REAL REASON WHY WOMEN HAVE BEEN OPPRESSED|
|The Human Soul Nexus.|
|The History of Arabic Grammar.|
|Why do the Innocent suffer, the answer.|
|A Careful Linguistic Analyasis of the term Allah.|
|I skipped, and I danced, and I sang.|
|Who destroyed Alexandria Library?|
|The Empty Vessel.|
|Islam: What is the Quran and Sunnah? (Written in Arabic)|
|The Lie of Hijab. (Written in Arabic)|
|Human Energy Economic System.|
|Aspartame is Rumsfeld's Disease: A Politically-Induced Biochemical Disaster Of Global Proportions.|
|Establishing Freedom of Evil at all Times within Bonded Community|
|Sovereignty is with Allah alone|
|University community model.|
|COMPLAINTS OF CONVERTS|
|The Skill of Discourse|
|The Natural Rights Clothes Shop|
|Meanings of Terms of law|
|A simple Lexicon investigation of a single verse of the Qur'an|
|The Onion of Ownership.|
|Police State: What is a police Officer?|
|Free Energy Plasma Engine|
|Part One. The Writ|
|Part Three: Gemot Administrators of Terrente (the peace of their mind threatened) Relief|
|Part Four - Wite and Surety Bonds|
|Eight point community plan|
|Equitable Allodial Utilisation (overview)|
|Proposed Method of Allodium Witnessed Declaration|
|Affidavit of Allodium Witnessed Declaration|
|‘Bona Gestura’ Bond of Allodarii|
|Notice of pursuance of Allodium Witnessed Declaration|
|Declaration of Allodial Utilisation|
|Polycentric community (overview)|
|Surety Bond (overview)|
|Reciprocated Agreement of Surety Bond|
|Anarchic Labour Trading|
|The Repository (overview)|
|Bonded Cooperative Occupational System|
|Plenary Allodium Utilisation Averment|
|Cooperative Assurance System|
|Cooperative Car Assurance|
|The Nature of War|
|The Nature of Democracy|
|The Nature of Sovereignty|
|The Third State of Consciousness|
|Inherent Power (short overview)|
|How a Substantive Moot of Inherent Power Functions through Axioms of the Land|
|Part Five - Tort - Duty of Care - Outcast|
|The System Second Series|
|The Law, Courts and Jurisdiction|
|Repository Securities and Advance|
|The Nature of Copyright|
|The Nature of Government|
|The Nature of Capitalism|
|The Court System versus the Moot System|
|A Duty of Care|
|The Concept and Structure of Polycentric community|
|The Nature of Economics|
|The Protected Paedophiles, Child Rapists, Child Torturers, and Child Murders of the British Establis|
|Arbitration of Universal Accountability - Tortious Relief|
|Unilateral Bond of Repository Administrator|
|The Nature of the Hospital System|
|Hemp Drugs Commission Report, completed in 1894|
|A Bonded Militia|
|Duty of Care Trading Declaration (food)|
|Bonded Cooperative Networks|
|Freedom or Slavery|
|Part Six - Relief, Recourse and the Jury|
|Part Seven - Constructive versus Substantive|
|The Education Assurance Bond|
|Predator and Prey|
|Francis of Assisi|
|Possession versus Utilisation of the Land|
|NOTICE: No Implied or inferred right of access|
|The Master of the Soul|
|The Nature of Money|