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The Trivium

Modern education teaches truth comes from authority, and intelligence is the ability to remember and repeat, so accurate memory and repetition are rewarded; and failure to repeat or comply is punished. The masses are compulsorily educated to conform intellectually and socially, to blindly accept authority as truth instead of truth as authority, and to avoid evidence contradicting that authority with strong emotional and cognitive dissonance. Why is education structured in this way?

History

Following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century, much of Aristotle's work on the trivium was lost in the Latin West. However the books of reasoning by Aristotle were available to the Arabs, and after 750 AD Muslims had most of them, including the Organon translated into Arabic, sometimes via earlier Syriac translations.

The method of reasoning spread widely through the Muslim world by the early 10th century, particularly through al- Fãrãbǐ  (d. 950), evolving further with Avicenna (d. 1037), who in contrast to al-Fãrãbǐ went beyond Aristotle and developed an original and unprecedented logical system. Avicenna was born in Córdoba, Spain, and better known as Ibn Rushd, he published commentaries on the works of Aristotle that became inseparable from the study of the Philosopher himself.

The aim of the trivium is to prepare the student not for gaining a livelihood, but to allow one to become autodidactic, which simply means “self-taught” in any subject, it teaches you ‘how’ to reason, and it was expected for parents to teach their child the trivium before they attended any school; this is in direct contrast to the Prussian School of education which teaches you ‘what’ to think, through memorisation and repetition; which is mass education through the ‘illiberal arts’; denoting education without culture or refinement; unscholarly; vulgar; ‘illiberal’ is a word meaning in Latin ‘grudging concessions’.

By 1492, with the fall of Granada, the Muslims were completely driven out of Spain, according to Rubenstein (2003), “The Christians found much of Spain to be enriched by international trade and productive agriculture.  Publicly supported universities were flourishing with its intellectuals thriving in the areas of law, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and the natural sciences.”

Western culture is ultimately indebted to the Arab world for the survival of Aristotelian philosophy. Throughout the so-called Dark Ages in Europe, the only works of Aristotle known were Aristotle’s logical treatises.

With the increasing contact the Christians had with the Muslims through the pillaging (stealing the resources of your neighbour) of the Muslim dominated world, Aristotle’s writings were rediscovered and helped to usher in ‘the great thaw’ of the celebrated twelfth century revival of learning known as the Renaissance.

In the 15th century, the Renaissance spread with great speed from its birthplace in Florence, first to the rest of Italy, and soon to the rest of Europe. The invention of the printing press allowed the rapid transmission of these new ideas.

However reasoned knowledge makes a man unfit to be a slave; subjects of study can only be mastered and all falsehood removed if you understand the methods needed to reason, this is essential to be a free soul; when the ability to reason becomes common place it endangers the authority of the accumulated wealth elite, who exist as parasites upon the masses through usury, privilege and imposition enforced through the threat of arms and the use of force.

The Prussian elite established a method to remove the trivium once more from Europe and ultimately the modern world, ironically even from the Muslims, by introducing tax-funded and generally compulsory primary education, comprising an eight-year course, called Volksschule (folk (common people) school). This taught basic reading, writing and arithmetic through a strict basis of ethics, duty, discipline and obedience to the State. The Prussian school of education is now the dominant method of education globally.

The elite saw the advantage they could gain from the ability to reason and so established exclusive private schools based upon full comprehension of the liberal arts, this is commonly known as a ‘classical education’.

The elite imposed this method of education eventually upon every State corporation, for example Horace Mann (1796–1859) worked to create a state-wide system of professional teachers, based on the Prussian model within the USA in 1837.

US President Woodrow Wilson in office March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1921, stated: “We want one class of persons to have a liberal education, and we want another class of persons, a very much larger class, of necessity, in every society, to forego the privileges of a liberal education and fit themselves to perform specific difficult manual tasks.”

The Prussian system is useful to the elite in creating not only a harmless electorate and a servile labour force but also a virtual herd of mindless consumers.

“I think schools generally do an effective and terribly damaging job of teaching children to be infantile, dependent, intellectually dishonest, passive and disrespectful to their own development capacities.” Seymour Papert

“… certain segments of the population must be programmed to be robotic drones, incapable or unwilling to think on their own. In this scenario, the ‘individual’ is the enemy of the state. Individual thinking and choice are not conducive to ‘peace and progress’ and not permitted. Only by being part of ‘The Team,’ can the individual (follower) accomplish objectives or ‘outcomes.’ Of course, these ‘objectives and outcomes’ are directed by the bureaucracy. This phase of population training is currently being accomplished by the public school system with such programs as ‘outcomes based education,’ and the introduction of New Ageism into the classroom. One has to remember that Adolf Hitler pioneered a similar tactic with his Hilterjugend and state-sponsored school system. To quote the Fuhrer, “When an opponent declares: ‘I will not come over to your side,’ I calmly say ‘your child belongs to me already. Who are you? You will pass on. Your descendants, however, now stand in the new camp. In a short time they will know nothing but this new community.’” Roberts, Craig (The Medusa File; Consolidated Press International; Tulsa, OK; 1997; p 90)

 

The Trivium

The seven "liberal arts"; arts meaning skills, while liberal denoted those subjects of study that were considered essential for a free person (Latin: liber, "free")

1.     Literature: encompassing the entire body of writings as a basis of "learning, writing, grammar,"

2.     Languages: a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people, encompassing roughly 6,500 spoken languages, however, about 2,000 of those languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers.

3.     Philosophy: ‘lover of wisdom’ - the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.

4.     History: ‘one who knows or sees’ - the branch of knowledge dealing with past events.

5.     Mathematics: ‘science’ - a group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry, and calculus, concerned with the study of number, quantity, shape, and space and their interrelationships by using a specialized notation

6.     Psychology: ‘study of the soul’ - the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.

7.     Science: ‘to know’ - systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.

Each of the seven basic subjects are themselves subdivided:

The Trivium  ‘place where three ways meet’ (the verbal arts) the order in which these areas of reason are investigated is vital as they represent three ways ‘input, processing, and output’, used to examine the evidence of our senses and establish who, what, when, where, why and how to the best conclusion –

1.     Grammar: ‘art of letters’ - traditionally the study of Latin and Greek, which greatly reinforced understanding of grammar, and the workings of a language, and so that students could read the Classics of Western Civilization in the words of the authors.

The fundamental rules

·        Who – references what is the identity of the person/s involved in objective reality?

·        What – references what is the identity of the subject, concept, or topic involved in objective reality?

·        When – references what is the identity of the time in objective reality?

·        Where – references what is the identity of the location or place in objective reality?

 

2.     Logic: ‘concerning speech or reasoning’ - (dialectic) is the science of correct reasoning.

The ordered relationship of particulars in each subject; it is by combining the evidence of grammar and applying logic, that creates what is referred to as the rhetoric, or the expression of wisdom.

·        Why – what is the identity of the cause? (The art of thinking without contradiction, being non- contradictory identification of cause)

·        How – what is the identity of the means or process? (What precipitates from answering the question how is the communication of knowledge and understanding, or wisdom)

 

3.     Rhetoric: ‘that which is spoken’ - debate and composition (which is the written form of rhetoric) "Rhetoric is the counterpart of dialectic." It is concerned with finding "all the available means of persuasion.

How the grammar and logic of each subject may be clearly expressed. If rhetoric is expressed in isolation it is easy to be misled, this is why it is imperative that each of us becomes skilled in the three step process.

·        Conclusion - a reasoned deduction or inference.

 

The Quadrivium ‘place where four ways meet’ (the numerical arts). Is used to numerically quantify the conclusions draw from the triviums examination of the evidence, as a measure of understanding -

1.     Arithmetic: number of pure abstraction; that is, outside of space and time

2.     Geometry: number in space

3.     Music: number in time

4.     Astronomy: number in space and time

 

Understanding fallacies within discourse

A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the argument's form without requiring an understanding of the argument's content. All formal fallacies are specific types of non sequiturs.

It is essential that the trivium is once more studied, mastered by each of us, and disseminated widely to our children, friends and relatives; its mastery is a prerequisite of being a Muslim and a free soul, reason being the foundation of true belief and firm resolve.

There are a great number of logical fallacies here are some examples:

Fallacies of Distraction

·     False Dilemma: two choices are given when in fact there are three options

·     From Ignorance: because something is not known to be true, it is assumed to be false

·     Slippery Slope: a series of increasingly unacceptable consequences is drawn

·     Complex Question: two unrelated points are conjoined as a single proposition

Appeals to Motives in Place of Support

·          Appeal to Force: the reader is persuaded to agree by force

·          Appeal to Pity: the reader is persuaded to agree by sympathy

·          Consequences: the reader is warned of unacceptable consequences

·          Prejudicial Language: value or moral goodness is attached to believing the author

·          Popularity: a proposition is argued to be true because it is widely held to be true

·          Changing the Subject

·          The person's character is attacked

·          The person's circumstances are noted

·          The person does not practise what is preached

Appeal to Authority:

·        The authority is not an expert in the field

·        Experts in the field disagree

·        The authority was joking, drunk, or in some other way not being serious

·        Anonymous Authority: the authority in question is not named

·        Style Over Substance: the manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion

Inductive Fallacies

·        Hasty Generalization: the sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population

·        Unrepresentative Sample: the sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole

·        False Analogy: the two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar

·        Slothful Induction: the conclusion of a strong inductive argument is denied despite the evidence to the contrary

·        Fallacy of Exclusion: evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration

·        Fallacies Involving Statistical Syllogisms

·        Accident: a generalization is applied when circumstances suggest that there should be an exception

·        Converse Accident : an exception is applied in circumstances where a generalization should apply

Causal Fallacies

·        Post Hoc: because one thing follows another, it is held to cause the other

·        Joint effect: one thing is held to cause another when in fact they are both the joint effects of an underlying cause

·        Insignificant: one thing is held to cause another, and it does, but it is insignificant compared to other causes of the effect

·        Wrong Direction: the direction between cause and effect is reversed

·        Complex Cause: the cause identified is only a part of the entire cause of the effect

Missing the Point

·        Begging the Question: the truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises

·        Irrelevant Conclusion: an argument in defense of one conclusion instead proves a different conclusion

·        Straw Man: the author attacks an argument different from (and weaker than) the opposition's best argument

Fallacies of Ambiguity

·        Equivocation: the same term is used with two different meanings

·        Amphiboly: the structure of a sentence allows two different interpretations

·        Accent: the emphasis on a word or phrase suggests a meaning contrary to what the sentence actually says

Category Errors

·        Composition: because the attributes of the parts of a whole have a certain property, it is argued that the whole has that property

·        Division: because the whole has a certain property, it is argued that the parts have that property

Non Sequitur

·        Affirming the Consequent: any argument of the form: If A then B, B, therefore A

·        Denying the Antecedent: any argument of the form: If A then B, Not A, thus Not B

·        Inconsistency: asserting that contrary or contradictory statements are both true

Syllogistic Errors - Fallacy of Four Terms: a syllogism has four terms

·        Undistributed Middle: two separate categories are said to be connected because they share a common property

·        Illicit Major: the predicate of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the predicate

·        Illicit Minor: the subject of the conclusion talks about all of something, but the premises only mention some cases of the term in the subject

Fallacy of Exclusive Premises: a syllogism has two negative premises

·        Fallacy of Drawing an Affirmative Conclusion From a Negative Premise: as the name implies

·        Existential Fallacy: a particular conclusion is drawn from universal premises

Fallacies of Explanation

·        Subverted Support (The phenomenon being explained doesn't exist)

·        Non-support (Evidence for the phenomenon being explained is biased)

·        Un-testability (The theory which explains cannot be tested)

·        Limited Scope (The theory which explains can only explain one thing)

·        Limited Depth (The theory which explains does not appeal to underlying causes)

Fallacies of Definition

·        Too Broad (The definition includes items which should not be included)

·        Too Narrow (The definition does not include all the items which should be included)

·        Failure to Elucidate (The definition is more difficult to understand than the word or concept being defined)

·        Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition)

Trivium Education - http://www.triviumeducation.com/

Gnostic Media - http://www.gnosticmedia.com/

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